Title: 數位遊戲中鷹架呈現模式與酬賞機制對玩家遊戲行為的影響
The Effect of Scaffolding Presentment Model and Reward Mechanism in Digital Games on Players’ Gaming Behavior
Authors: 朱秀美
Chu, Hsiu-Mei
Sun, Chuen-Tsai
Keywords: 數位遊戲;鷹架輔助;酬賞機制;遊戲行為;Digital games;Scaffolding;Reward and penalty mechanisms;Gaming Behavior
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 在數位遊戲中,常會利用鷹架輔助來協助玩家過關而不致於卡關,讓玩家可以在遊戲當中避免長時間的挫折,或是發現解決問題的策略而獲得成就感。本研究以數位版數獨遊戲中的「數獨教授」為遊戲環境,將該遊戲中多種不同的鷹架工具,依Wood、Bruner及Ross (1976)的分類,分成「關鍵特徵」、「控制挫折」與「提供示範」三種類型鷹架,並以主動、被動出現和隠藏三種呈現方式,讓玩家在遇到卡關時,可以選擇性的使用鷹架,避免玩家過度依賴輔助工具,剝奪玩家的學習機會。另外,本研究也加入酬賞機制(得分和扣分)為外在誘因,進一步探討是否對玩家在遊戲過程中的行為表現及過關方式造成影響。 本研究先以二十四位玩家做前導性研究,在前導性研究發現玩家在遊戲中的行為差異。在正式研究時,將玩家分成鷹架主動呈現得分組、鷹架主動呈現扣分組、鷹架被動出現得分組、鷹架被動出現扣分組、鷹架隠藏得分組和鷹架隠藏扣分組六組,進行不同鷹架呈現方式及酬賞下的數獨教授遊戲,再比較其間遊戲行為表現及過關方式的差異性。 本研究主要的發現如下: 一、 鷹架被動出現組和鷹架隠藏組使用控制挫折和提供示範的工具次數低於鷹架主動呈現組。 二、 酬賞機制中扣分組使用關鍵特徵和控制挫折的工具次數低於得分組。 三、 無數獨遊戲經驗的玩家較依賴鷹架工具,且多傾向使用工具類別中的控制挫折。 四、 鷹架隠藏組中有數獨遊戲經驗的玩家過關方式多傾向與規則共在的玩。 關鍵字:數位遊戲、鷹架輔助、酬賞機制、遊戲行為
In digital games, scaffolding is often used to help players to achieve goals instead of getting stuck. Scaffolding either prevents players from a long period of frustration in playing games, or helps them finding the problem-solving strategies in order to gain a sense of achievement. In this research we used the digital version of “Sudoku” as the game environment, which supported various scaffolding tools. According to Wood, Bruner and Ross’s (1976) classification, the tools were divided into three types of scaffolding which were “revealing key characteristics”, “controlling frustrations” and “providing demonstrations”. The tools were presented in an active, a passive, and a hidden way, respectively, for comparison of their scaffolding capability. The players had the option to use scaffoldings when they got stuck in the game so as to prevent the players from depending much on auxiliary aids and depriving their chances of learning. In addition, this study also added a reward mechanism (getting points and losing points) as an external incentive to further explore whether it affects the players’ behavioral performances while playing the game. Twenty-four players were selected as participants in the pilot study in which we identified their differences in gaming behaviors. In the formal study, the players were divided into groups with combinations of active/passive/hidden scaffolding and reward/penalty. The Sudoku game was played under such various scaffolding presentments and different reward. Then, we compared the differences among the game behavior performances and gaming modes. The principal findings of this research are as follows: (1)Passive and hidden scaffolding groups showed lower frequency in using controlling frustration and providing demonstration tools than the active scaffolding group. (2)The reward groups used less tools of revealing key haracteristics and controlling frustration tools than the penalty groups. (3)Players without previous Sudoku gaming experiences relied more on the scaffolding tools, and they tended to use more controlling frustration tools. (4) Groups of hidden scaffolding with Sudoku game experiences tended to play with rules in an attempt to pass the game. Keywords: Digital games, Scaffolding, Reward and penalty mechanisms, Gaming Behavior
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