Empirical analysis on damage award of patent disputes
|關鍵字:||專利侵權;損害賠償;合理權利金;所失利益;整體市場價值法則;分攤原則;實證研究;patent infringment;damage award;reasonable royalty;lost profits;The Entire Market Value Rule;APPORTIONMENT;Empirical analysis|
|摘要:||我國廠商在美國遭提起專利侵權或違反不正競爭法訴訟時有所聞，出口產品亦時常因涉嫌侵權而在美國國際貿易委員會（International Trade Commission；簡稱ITC）遭到擋關，筆者亦曾審理我國廠商出口電子零件至美國遭美國公司提起侵害專利訴訟，我國出口廠商遂對上游零件製造商提起民事損害賠償訴訟之事件。由於我國與美國商業交易頻繁，跨國之專利侵權訴訟已不可避免，了解兩國專利及訴訟制度已為高科技公司商業經營之一環，適逢美國專利改革之立法及我國專利法修法進程均於今年底定，本文試圖由兩國既有之法制設計及判決之實證分析探討目前之專利侵權損害賠償制度之徵結，同時參酌新修法之內容以為評析。
本文旨在探討專利侵權損害賠償，第一章先介紹研究動機與目的，第二章則引介美國法制，內容包括該國專利法之成文法及案例法、美國聯邦貿易委員會（The Federal Trade Commission；簡稱FTC）在專利改革中所提出之建言，並輔以該國學者對此議題所為之實證研究，而以其等之檢討改進方向做為結語。第三章介紹我國專利法立法沿革及學者對相關法律之解讀，並對於專利侵權之損害賠償範圍、特殊侵權行為與不當得利、不法管理等請求權基礎間之關係，提出本文看法。第四章則以97年7月1日起至100年10月31日止之智慧財產法院專利侵權損害賠償一審判決為實證研究對象，以敘述統計方式量化研究專利權人之「勝訴率」、「判賠率」、「判賠金額大小」及「各種損害賠償範圍之採用比率」，並閱讀智慧財產法院一、二審判決內容將之分析歸納，以質性說明量化研究之成果。第五章則以前述章節為根基，比較分析美國、德國、日本、大陸與我國關於專利侵權賠償範圍之異同，佐以對智慧財產法院判決實證結果以及我國100年11月29日修正通過之專利法立法理由，為「依侵害人因侵害行為所得之利益」予以重新詮釋及「合理權利金」之正名與定位提出建言。|
It is common to learn that Taiwan companies are engaged in patent infringement or Antitust violations in the United States. Products made by Taiwan manufacturers are sometimes excluded by the US International Trade Commission (ITC) on the ground of patent infringement. As a Judge of Hsinchu District Court, I once adjudged a case that one Taiwan electronic components exporter being accused of patent infringement by an American patentee, the exporter in turn sued its upstream manufacturer for damage in Hsinchu District Court. Because of frequent business transactions between the U.S. and Taiwan, patent disputes seem unavoidable. Till very recently in 2011, the enactment of U.S. Patent Reform Act as the America Invents Act as well as new amendments to the Patent Law in Taiwan were all passed, and the changes signify a need to understand the legal institution and practice of patent disputes and damages This paper analyzes the damage award of patent infringement from both jurisdictions, and conducts the empirical research to unveil the enforcement of patent damages . This paper aims to explore the damage compensations of patent infringement. Chapter I introduces the background and motivation for such research, and the research goal, methodology and process. Chapter II refers to the regulations and practices of the U.S. , including statutes , cases and recommendations of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regarding the U.S. Patent Reform. Furthermore, this study provides empirical findings of U.S scholars for the suggestions proposed by the FTC. Chapter III dedicates to the patent infringement relief system of Taiwan. It includes the legislative history and scholastic interpretations. Moreover, this chapter analyzes the patent damage award on the legal grounds of torts, as contrast to unjust enrichment and unlawful management of affairs without mandate. Chapter IV performs an empirical analysis of patent damages on the cases, from 1 July 2008 to 31 October 2011, adjudged by Taiwan Intellectual Property(IP) Court. The empirical research quantifies with descriptive statistics for patentee's "winning rate", " percentage of damages ", "amount of damages" and " the comparisons of awarded ratios among various approaches of damage award " Furthermore, qualitative research is also conducted by analyzing the case contents from the decisions of first and second instances of IP Court . The final chapter concludes with the comparisons of pertinent patent regulations and practices from the United States, Germany, Japan, China and Taiwan. Based upon the empirical study of this research, patent legislation history as well as the newly passed Taiwan Patent Law, this thesis proposes to Taiwan courts the interpretations and practice with regard to the infringers’ profits and the reasonable royalty as damage compensations.
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