From the SWOT and Five Forces Analysis to Explore the Competitive Strategy of Taiwan Foundry Companies-A Case Study of T Company
|關鍵字:||半導體產業;晶圓代工;五力分析;SWOT分析;競爭策略;Semiconductor Industry;Foundry Industry;Five Forces Analysis;SWOT Analysis;Competitive Strategy|
本研究從Michael E. Porter的五力分析理論及Albert S Humphrey 的SWOT分析理論，探討晶圓代工產業的未來趨勢與競爭策略，其主要構思有三大項: SWOT分析、五力分析與競爭策略。經由個案公司(全球晶圓代工的標竿企業)，探討以台灣晶圓代工所擁有的資源與能力，來確認公司的競爭優勢，並結合最有利的外部機會，進而找出最佳的競爭策略，以供業界參考。
本研究的主要發現與建議:晶圓代工市場即將進入一個三層結構的競爭格局(3-tier competitive landscape)，分別是先進技術的競爭領域、成熟製程的競爭領域和專業利基服務。台積電和IBM技術聯盟(IBM、三星電子及Global Foundries)是先進技術競爭領域的主要廠商。聯電(UMC)、中芯國際（SMIC）、世界先進(VIS) 、韓國的Dongbu HiTek及MagnaChip是成熟製程的競爭領域的主要廠商。而以色列Tower Semiconductor和德國的X-Fab是專業利基服務的主要廠商。
晶圓代工業者應該根據自己的戰略地位、核心能力和優勢，重新佈局在有利的戰略位置，以挑戰未來的經營環境，並不斷地加強其專業價值和競爭能力，進一步提供IC設計生態系統(eco-system)服務，以加強與客戶建立長期的策略合作夥伴關係。先進技術競爭領域的廠商，應擴大資本投資，以承諾客戶並保有其高階製程產能與技術領先，積極與客戶結成技術聯盟。成熟製程及專業利基服務的競爭領域的廠商，建議應採取Michael E. Porter在<競爭策略>中所提出的三個競爭策略:成本領導策略、差異化策略及專精策略，並加上企業價值鍊分析，不斷加強其核心業務價值，並提供一個最佳的組合技術、成本低、value-added為客戶服務，進一步針對特殊應用產品，建立產品區隔與專精策略，以避開低價紅海競爭，開創另一片新藍海。|
The global semiconductor industry is facing difficult challenges of growth slowdown and Moore’s Law reaching its limit. This is a tough time of “slow growth, increased investment,” especially the foundry industry where the strong competitors like IBM, Samsung Electronics and Global Foundries jump into the battlefield led to rapid change of competitive environment and technology development. The foundry industry is facing unprecedented challenges of fierce competition and reached a critical moment of Moore’s Law reaching its limit. However, the new trend of IDM outsourcing opens a ray of hope. In this study, we explore the future trend and competitive strategies of the foundry industry using Michael E. Porter's Five Forces Theory and Albert S Humphrey SWOT analysis theory. A model company in the global foundry business is selected as a case company. Taiwan-based foundries, with the resources and capability they have, confirmed their competitive advantages, can further combine with the most favorable external opportunities to find out the best competitive strategy as a reference for the industry. The foundry market is entering a three-tier competitive landscape—the advanced technology, the mature technology and the specialized niche services. TSMC and IBM technology alliance (IBM, Samsung Electronics and Global Foundries) are top players in the advanced process technology field. United Microelectronics (UMC), Semiconductor Manufacturing International (SMIC), Vanguard International Semiconductor (VIS), South Korea's Dongbu HiTek and MagnaChip Semiconductor are major players in the mature technology field while Tower Semiconductor of Israel and X-Fab Silicon Foundries of Germany are major manufactures in the specialized niche services field. Foundry players should relocate themselves to a favorable strategic position to face the challenges of the future business environment based on their strategic position, core competencies and competitive advantages and continue to enhance their professional value and competitiveness and further provide IC design ecosystem services to strengthen cooperation with customers to establish long-term strategic partnership. Foundries in the field of advanced technology should expand capital investment to maintain their high manufacturing capacity and technology leadership and commitment to customers, and actively form technology alliances with their customers. For the companies in the mature technology and professional niche services, it is recommended to take Michael E. Porter’s three competitive strategies—cost leadership strategy, differentiation strategy and focus strategy —as proposed in his book "Competitive Strategy,” plus enterprise value chain analysis, to continuously strengthen their core business value and provide an optimal combination of technology, low cost, and value-added services to customers. Further, for special-application products, they should establish market segmentation and the professional strategy to avoid low-price Red Ocean competition, and create a new Blue Ocean of uncontested opportunities.
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