A Case Study of Two English Teachers’Cognition and Practices in a Remedial Program
|關鍵字:||教師認知;補教教學;師資培育;Teacher cognition;Remedial education;Teacher Education|
|摘要:||近年來的研究對於教師在第二外語教育上的認知和實務日趨受到重視。由於許多研究指出教師在課堂上的教學決定和實務受到多種因素的影響，其中包括教學知能、教學理論、教學態度、以及教學實施和情境。因此，Borg (2003)將影響教師的認知因素歸納整理為三種範疇：(1)認知和先前語言學習經驗 (2)認知和師資培育(3)認知和教學實施和情境。然而，在過去的研究中，以教學實施對教師的認知和其實務影響最為之大。
多數的研究主要探討在主流教育下，教師所處的教學情境對其認知和實務的影響，然而，以幫助弱勢國中學生的補救教學計畫，像是課後補救教學，卻沒有得到同等的注意。再者，過去的研究中，仍以少數幾種影響教師認知和實務的因素做為其研究主題，因而未能提供一全盤且完整的教師知能發展。本研究採用Borg (2006)的理論架構(Elements and Processes in Language Teacher Cognition)，用來檢視兩位在台灣北部一個非營利組織之英文教師在參與原住民補教學中，其認知發展和實務間的影響。研究資料經由訪談、課堂觀察、以及文件蒐集彙整而成。所蒐集資料經由修改後的Borg其理論架構分析以便釐清教師教學認知、實務、和教學情境三者間的關係。
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the issues of teacher cognition and practices in second language education. Previous studies have indicated that teachers’ decision-making and practice in their language classrooms are highly influenced by a variety of factors, including knowledge, theories, attitudes, and situated context. To embrace the complexity of teachers’ mental lives, Borg (2003) summarized those factors into three categories: (1) cognition and prior language learning experience, (2) cognition and teacher education, and (3) cognition and classroom practice. Researchers, in particular, emphasize that contextual factors play a pivotal role in the implementation of teacher cognition and teaching practices. While the bulk of studies have explored how teacher cognition is influenced by the contextual factors in mainstream educational systems, remedial education, in particular, after-school programs, which aim to help disadvantaged students in their junior high school, has inexplicably received little attention. Furthermore, previous studies have mainly examined how one or few factors influence teachers’ cognitions. Few studies have attempted to provide a holistic picture of how teacher cognition is developed and shaped. Drawing on Borg’s framework (2006), this current study aimed at examining the interplay of teacher cognition and practices by exploring factors shaping teacher cognition and their practice in remedial education. A qualitative case study approach was adopted to investigate two English teachers’ cognition in a remedial program for aboriginal junior high school students in northern Taiwan. Data were gathered from interviews (formal and after-class interviews with two targeted teachers and interviews with their students), weekly classroom observations, and teaching documents (e.g. syllabus, handouts, and supplementary materials). The collected data was analyzed by Borg’s theoretical framework in order to identify the relations among teacher cognitions, practices, and the contextual factors. The findings illustrated that first; the two teachers’ cognition in the remedial program was shaped by their personal learning experiences, professional coursework they took, and the context of their teaching. For both teachers, their prior learning experience served as a blueprint, which helped them dominate their initial decision-making in their teaching. Second, the professional training teachers received was found to have a slight impact on their cognitions because the training did not provide teachers with opportunities to make sense of theory and did not help teachers realize the contextual change. Finally, the situated context including their interaction with the administrator, colleagues’ comments, their students’ responses, and students’ parents’ attitudes toward the remedial program were the most distinctive contextual factors influencing the teachers’ cognitions and their practices. In conclusion, this study helped to gain an in-depth understanding of English teachers’ cognitive development in the remedial program. The results further imply that teachers’ roles in the situated context and their different teaching as well as learning backgrounds could facilitate or hinder their teaching cognition and practices. It is important of teacher education, which should help teachers clarify their past experiences and then integrate in their teaching practices in order to achieve more efficient teaching instructions. The study suggests that remedial institutions should provide mentors to assist novice teachers to build knowledge and skills to deal with practicum teaching context. The pedagogical implications drawn from the study results may help to improve the efficiency of both teacher education and remedial education. Furthermore, teachers’ cognitive development should be focused to facilitate their professional growth.
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