The Re-immigration of the Tingzhou Hakka in Taiwan:A Case Study of the Shieh Family in Pingsing Village,Zaociao Township, Miaoli County
This study traced the process of reclamation in Taiwan of the immigrants surnamed Hsieh from Fujian Tingzhou and their second immigration. This history which has spanned over two hundred years indicates that after the relative minority, the immigrants from Tingzhou integrated into the immigrants of Guangdong, their boundary of clans still remained; however, their ethnic identification ultimately The people surnamed Hsieh in Miaoli area aggregated those with the same surname in Miaoli area from Fujian and Guangdong provinces to establish the clan association. These people of different ancestral branches used their blood relationships to establish their own clan in Miaoli, and maintained the family identification through the repeating ancestor worship rites. At the same time, when the Hsieh family tried to localize their blood relationship, they also localized their dialect. In the process of localization, they ultimately forgot their “Tingzhou” identification and changed to “Miaoli.” Except for the ancestral shrine and the regular worship activities, the Hakka identification of those surnamed Hsieh was maintained by an important factor, which is that they lived in Miaoli area, an environment mainly surrounded by the Hakkas of four counties. Since the neighboring communities were mostly Hakkas, thus, their languages, beliefs, and worship activities also assimilated Hakkas. Therefore, they always kept their concept of Hakka identification, which infers that the localization contributes to their Hakka identification. On the contrary, if not for the reclamation of these Tingzhou people in Miaoli, the Hakka identification may be lost. It is meaningless to discuss the Hakka in the aspect of origin identification since the emphasis should be put on the backtracking of the ultimately aggregated “Hakka” identification of Tingzhou, Chaozhou, Jiazhou, and Huizhou. Whether the people from Tingzhou belong to the “Hakka” or “Hoklo” depends on where they reside in. The identification of the people from Tingzhou may vary with the differences of their situation in Taiwan; hence, they can be the Hoklo or the Hakka. Their transformation of identification from “Tingzhou” to “Hakka” broke through the past stereotypes of “the Cantonese equals to the Hakka” and “the Fukien people equals to the Hoklo.” Keywords: Tingzhou, identification, Hakka, Zaociao, families
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