標題: 中文互動動詞的力學展演
Force Dynamics and Force Interaction Verbs in Mandarin
作者: 江姿儀
Chiang, Tzu-I
劉美君
Liu, Mei-chun
外國語文學系外國文學與語言學碩士班
關鍵字: 中文互動動詞;動力學;框架語意;Force Interaction Verbs;Force Dynamics;Frame Semantics
公開日期: 2010
摘要: 本研究以Talmy (2000) 所提出的動力學 (Force Dynamics)為本,探討中文互動動詞的力學展演。在物理學上,物體間的力量互動為不同致使關係提供概念基礎。Talmy (2000) 一文將動力學定義為一種語意類型。這種語意類型整合了前人所有對致使(causation) 的各種假設,並藉由不同動詞與各種力學基模(force schemas) 呈現施動者與受動者兩造之間的力學關係。然而,不管是力學基模的詞彙化情況、或是受語境影響的程度等等,中文的互動動詞類型與表現都較英文多元。 因此,本研究致力於探究中文互動動詞所代表的各種力學互動關係及其詞彙化情形,並協助闡釋中文使役動詞 (Manipulation causative) 令/使/讓/叫 獨特的使役標記功能。 追循Fillmore 和Atkins (1992)所提出的框架語意理論 (Frame Semantics)及Liu和Chiang (2008)提出的「中文動詞語意網」之架構,本研究也對中文互動動詞進一步做全面階層性的分類。藉由觀察中文互動動詞在實際語料中所呈現的事件類型、認知概念基模、語法表現、及語意特徵等等,將其由上往下分入「主框架 (Archiframe)」、「首要框架 (Primary frame)」、「基本框架 (Basic frame)」,以及「微框架 (Microframe)」 (Liu and Chiang 2008) 之中。經由上述分類後,中文互動動詞所詞彙化的各種力學關係得以清楚展現。 本研究的完成除了能為中文互動動詞的研究提供一完整有系統的分類、對中文「讓」的多義性提出解釋,也可與Talmy (2000) 所提出的「動力學為一跨語言之語意類型」相呼應。 關鍵字:中文互動動詞、動力學、框架語意
Abstract This paper explores the issues of force dynamics discussed in Talmy (2000) by investigating Force Interaction Verbs (FIVs) in Mandarin. The ways physical entities interact with each other in terms of force provide the conceptual bases for various causative relations. According to Talmy, force dynamics as a semantic category exhibits a unilateral force interaction in which “one force-exerting entity is singled out for focal attention and the second one, correlatively, is considered for the effect that it has on the first, effectively overcoming it or not (Talmy 2000: 413). Several major force schemas were distinguished. Mandarin FIVs, however, display a categorical complexity distinct from that of English in terms of how force schemas are lexicalized and how context helps to determine the balance of strength upon force interactions. This study aims to investigate the possible unilateral force interactions distinguished in Mandarin FIVs as well as the constructional variations associated with each distinct lexicalization patterns. It also helps to explain how Manipulation causatives such as 令lìng/使shĭ/讓ràng/叫jiào are alternatively used as causative markers to lexicalize purposeful forces in variety in Mandarin. Under the assumption that verb meanings are anchored in semantic frames with lexically-profiled specificities (Fillmore and Atkins 1992, Goldberg 2005), Verbs of relational force are analyzed and re-constructed with a frame-based taxonomy, following the classificational scheme established in Liu and Chiang (2008) with an extendable hierarchy of semantic scopes: Archiframe > Primary frame > Basic frame > Microframe. It is proposed that the correlations of semantic properties and syntactic behaviors characteristic of Mandarin FIVs are triggered and modeled upon a number of extensional patterns of force interactions. By offering a cognitive semantic account, the study not only proposes a frame-based explanation of the polysemy of 讓ràng, but ultimately draws implications on the cognitive-linguistic correspondences pertaining to the domain of force relations for both language-specific and cross-linguistic generalizations. Keywords: Force Interaction Verbs, Force Dynamics, Frame Semantics
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079645513
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/43169
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