標題: 觀光地區遊客運具之選擇偏好-以台灣好行日月潭線為例
The tourist preference for mode choice in scenic areas -A case of Sun-Moon Lake route, Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus
作者: 林韋丞
Lin, Wei -Cheng
Feng, Cheng-Min
Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien
關鍵字: 台灣好行;觀光旅次;運具選擇;羅吉特模式;Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus;tourism trip;mode choice;Logit model
公開日期: 2011
摘要: 因應國外旅客來台自由行與國人旅遊風潮,交通部觀光局自2010年起推動「台灣好行」景點接駁旅遊服務計畫。透過主要場站與景點之客運接駁,提升觀光景點交通可及性與服務品質。但宥於行銷預算有限,管理者勢必須將資源投入於台灣好行的關鍵目標客群,故確認影響搭乘台灣好行遊客選擇行為之因子,並進一步界定台灣好行服務之目標客群,遂成為首要課題。據此,本研究以台灣好行日月潭線為案例,探討影響觀光旅次運具選擇行為之因素,並分析其目標客群,提出各項改善策略建議與效益分析。 本研究採問卷調查方式訪問日月潭遊客,利用樣本獨立t檢定與卡方檢定,探討遊客社經特性、觀光旅次屬性、旅遊者特質及運具使用經驗等因素是否存在顯著差異。接續將樣本按旅遊者特質分群,以敘述性偏好 (stated preference) 法探討行程套票、導覽解說服務及限制小汽車使用等策略對遊客運具選擇行為的影響,並以羅吉特模式 (Logit model) 進行校估,探討不同特質旅遊者之運具選擇偏好,據以提出台灣好行推廣策略。 統計結果顯示,遊客未使用台灣好行主要原因係無法確知乘車資訊,其次為習慣使用私有運具。且可歸納出同行人數較少、關係較親密且無隨行孩童或行李、遊客重視目的地體驗、有時間觀念、以節省為優先考量、未擁有私人運具、且其使用私有運具經驗愈少者,其觀光旅次偏向選擇使用公共運輸。本研究後續並根據上述特性分別提出改善建議,以助於決策者研擬策略。 此外,羅吉特模式校估結果顯示,本研究所研擬策略情境皆具有顯著提升遊客使用台灣好行意願之效果。為界定台灣好行目標客群,依旅遊者特質可將遊客分為四群,其分群及策略包括:好與眾不同但無深入探訪意願之「淺嘗輒止型」,可強化私房景點服務,突顯與一般客運之差異。依賴感較重之「隨波逐流型」,可利用口耳相傳推廣良好使用經驗,並以可靠、安全獲得其信賴。喜深入冒險之「探索玩家型」,可著重於串連新景點與深度旅遊。願付較高成本以獲得較佳行程安排的「消費享樂型」,應提升台灣好行及沿線合作觀光產業之品質。本研究所提方法可應用於其他台灣好行路線,以因地制宜界定不同目標客群及發展行銷策略,可為交通部觀光局及地方政府補助路線之參考依據,並有助於業者提升經營效率。
In response to foreign visitors and nations travelling in Taiwan freely, Tourism Bureau, MOTC proposed the “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” since 2010. This improved quality and accessibility of public transportation in scenic spots. The target tourists of “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” should be determined because of the resource limitation. Accordingly, how to identify the factors impacting mode choice behavior of tourist becomes a critical issue. This study thus analyzes the mode choice behavior of tourism trips and examines the target tourists of “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” through an empirical case in Sun-Moon Lake for discussing the cost/benefit and developing marketing strategies. An independent samples t-test and chi-squared test were employed to explore the differences of socioeconomic characteristics, tourism trip attributes, tourist features as well as experiences in mode use based on questionnaires to tourists in Sun-Moon Lake. Moreover, a stated preference method was utilized to examine the impacts of scenarios such as tourism packages, tour guide and narration along with car-use restriction on mode choice behaviors of tourists. Logit model was used to explore the various preferences of tourists with different features. According to analytical results, this study suggests some strategies for promoting "Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus." Statistical results indicate that most non-Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus users are absent from sufficient "Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus" information. Furthermore, tourists possess fewer accompanists, particularly with close relationship but without children and luggage, focus on experiencing tour destinations, time conception and frugality, or habitually use non private vehicles, prefer choosing the public transportation. Based on the mentioned characteristics, this study suggests improvements of “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” to assist decision makers in developing strategies. Additionally, results of Logit estimations reveal that the proposed strategy scenarios significantly increase tourists’ willingness to use “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus.” In order to determine the target consumers of “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus,” four clusters identified via tourist features and related improvement strategies were developed. First, tourists preferring unusual experience but lacking of perseverance are clustered as “to put away the cup after taking a tiny sip.” Tourists in this cluster could be attracted through improving the connections between “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” and specific undeveloped scenes. Second, tourists having dependent mentality are clustered as “to swim with the stream.” Tourists in this cluster could be attracted through word of mouse about interesting, safe and reliable services. Moreover, tourists enjoying adventures are clustered as “to explore.” Tourists in this cluster could be attracted through constructing in-depth travel services in scenic areas. Finally, tourists willing to pay higher for better journey are clustered as “to live a life with pleasure.” Tourists in this cluster could be attracted through improving service qualities of “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” and cooperative tourism industries. Consequently, the proposed model has application in and can be integrated in other “Taiwan Tourist Shuttle Bus” routes to determine their target tourists and develop appropriate marketing strategies based on the spatial economic differences. This can assist authorities in prioritizing subsidies and help operators to improve efficiency, simultaneously.
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