標題: 刑事證據法則對於電子證據適用之研究
The Application of Criminal Evidentiary Rules to Electronic Evidence
作者: 朱帥俊
Shuai-Chun Chu
劉尚志
吳巡龍
Shang-Jyh Liu
Hsun-lung wu
管理學院科技法律學程
關鍵字: 刑事證據法則;電子證據;證據能力;證明力;違法證據排除法則;傳聞法則;驗真法則;最佳證據法則;Criminal Evidentiary Rules;Electronic Evidence;Admissibility;Probative Value;Exclusionary Rule;Hearsay Rule;Authentication Rule;The Best Evidence Rule
公開日期: 2006
摘要: 我國於民國九十二年施行修正之刑事訴訟法,其中證據法則變動幅度甚大,尤其引入英美法系證據法則觀念,為我國刑事證據法制之研究,帶來更多討論的題材與思考之方向,誠值對之加以關注與研究。另一方面,各種形態之數位資料如電子文件、數位照片、數位圖片、數位影像、數位聲音等,近年來大量成為庭呈證據。然而因為對於資訊領域的不熟悉,刑事證據法則對於電子證據之適用及範圍一直甚感陌生。因此分析及描述電子證據之各項物理性質與特徵,期能充分瞭解如何適用種刑事證據法則,為本論文首要目標。 此外,對於刑事證據法則引入英美法系之觀念甚多,與我國固有證據法制或實務見解能否相容,於適用於電子證據時,應否加以調整或排除,誠有必要藉此機會一併分析之。尤其電子證據具有國際性、共通性,因此藉由對國外立法例與案例之分析研究,期能瞭解我國適用與調整之方向,此乃本文第二目標。 本論文首先以電腦運作及電磁紀錄之儲錄方式為出發點,從資訊發展與人類接觸之沿革,討論電子證據如何挑戰傳統證據法則,且為因應上開衝擊,國際組織及外國(以美國為主)之證據法則如何因時、因地制宜或折衷協調。於歸納整理各國立法趨勢之後,進一步針對美國案例中處理電子證據之經驗,討論電子證據與傳統證據法則應有之平衡點與調整處。 最後,本文擬從電子證據之物理特徵與國外立法方向及案例經驗為經緯,剖析我國現行證據規則及實務案例之良弊得失,嘗試整理出各刑事證據法則下對電子證據之適用與調整等原則,以供我國現行刑事司法實務及未來刑事立法於處理電子證據之參考。
The revised Code of Criminal Procedure went into effect in Taiwan in 2003, with many changes in the evidentiary rules. The introduction of the concept of evidentiary rules under the Common Law System brought many issues for further discussion in the new Code of Criminal Evidence System. On the other hand, digital data in various forms such as electronic documents, digital photos, digital pictures, digital images, digital voice recording, etc. have been increasingly admitted as court evidence in recent years. However, the applicability and scope of electronic evidence in the Code of Criminal Evidence has been an uncharted territory for many. Therefore, the paper aims at analyzing the nature of electronic evidence in order to fully understand how the evidentiary rules apply. In addition, the new evidentiary rules have incorporated many concepts from the Common Law System. It is worthwhile analyzing whether or not these concepts are compatible with our existing evidentiary system or practical views and if they require adjustments or exclusion when applied to electronic evidence. As electronic evidence is international and common in the nature, we need to take reference from international cases to determine the future directions of such application and adjustments. This constitutes the second objective of this paper. This paper begins with an analysis of computer operations and electromagnetic records. From the evolution of information development and its interaction with human beings, the paper then discusses how electronic evidence has challenged the conventional evidentiary rules. It goes further to analyze how the evidentiary rules of international organizations and foreign countries (mainly the United States) responded to these challenges. After delineating the legislative trends of various countries, the balance point and necessary adjustments between electronic evidence and conventional evidentiary rules are explored based on how electronic evidence was treated in US cases. Finally, the paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the existing evidentiary rules and practical cases in Taiwan based on the physical characteristics of electronic evidence as well as the legislative trends of foreign countries and international cases. The paper attempts to formulate principles for the application and adjustments of electronic evidence to the evidentiary rules of various criminal codes for the reference of how Taiwan’s criminal justice system treats electronic evidence in practice and future legislation.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009068518
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41835
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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