Right Exhaustion and Case Analysis of US Patent Act
|摘要:||美國最高法院對於廣達與LGE(Quanta v. LGE)的判決，引起大眾對於專利權權利耗盡(patent exhaustion)之廣泛討論，比較多的討論著重在其結論，以及其影響。然而，除了這個個案帶來新的決定與影響外，還有哪些情形也會有權利耗盡的情形？實務上有哪些判決呼應這些情形？是否有一較有系統的判斷法？在簽訂授權契約時，該如何維護應有的權益？這些問題引發了本文作此研究的動機。本文的目的是要提出兩種判斷邏輯，一種是如何判定部分元件體現組合專利的簡易推導法，另一種是如何判斷有無權利耗盡的判斷邏輯。因此，在本文的研究方法中，採用的是判例文獻分析法，且以美國法為範圍，首先談論權利耗盡的原則與規定，然後配合關鍵案例的發展，將各案例所涉權利耗盡的類型作一初步歸納，再就此一歸納所產出的判斷邏輯，進行各案例的實證分析，以驗證本文所推耗盡判斷的可行性。經由本文的驗證與探討，本文認為，依是否被授權人，依是否有限制條件，依是否有使用及銷售以外行為等，即可很快地得到權利耗盡與否的判斷結果，且在複雜的耗盡判斷上，該判斷邏輯應有可行的空間。再者，透過此套用以判斷權利耗盡與否的邏輯化架構，將讓業者在簽訂授權契約時，可以很簡易地判斷出是否有造成權利耗盡的問題，以避免事後無法追索權利金等情事。|
Based upon a judge decision from a lawsuit of Quanta v. LGE in Supreme Court, a lot of discussions with respect to patent exhaustion were widely published. Most of discussion is focused on its decision and its affection in the future. However, in addition to the new decision and its affection result from this case, are there any other situations falling into patent exhaustion? What cases are matching to these situations? How to maintain own interest in a license agreement? These kinds of questions induce the generation of this article. The object of this article is to provide of thinking logics. One is related to an easy logic to judge how a combination patent has been embedded by a practice in partial element. The other one is related to a logic to judge how a patent right has been exhausted. This article proceeds with an article analysis method and focuses on US law. In this article, some of principles and regulations related to patent exhaustion are illustrated first. And then, some of key cases are introduced. Combining the development of cases and the principles, a preliminary judgment model is generated. In the continuation, the preliminary judgment model is verified by cases to see the practicability of the judgment model. By means of the study of this article, we finally find that whether patent is exhausted can be judged simply based upon some situations such as whether it is sold by licensee, whether there have limitation conditions, and whether it has further conduct in addition to use and sale. Such a judgment model is useful in deciding whether exhaustion happens. Moreover, by means of this judgment model for judging patent exhaustion, one in negotiating license will be able to judge the exist of patent exhaustion so as to avoid from lacking ability to ask for license fee against other party.
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