標題: 台語kha...ma結構的量化分析
Taiwanese kha...ma Correlative Constructions:A Quantificational Analysis
作者: 劉美玲
Liu, Mei-Ling
劉辰生
徐淑瑛
Liu, Chen-Sheng
Shyu, Shu-Ing
外國語文學系外國文學與語言學碩士班
關鍵字: 台語kha;ma;關聯句式;量化三分結構;預期-違反語意;句法-語意介面;Taiwanese;Taiwanese Southern Min;kha;correlative construction;quantificational tripartite structure;expectation-contravention
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 本論文題旨在於探討台語的kha…ma關聯句式,並從句法、語意和語用等不同的角度切入,進而提出一個量化的分析方式。在句法上,這個結構嚴格要求kha和ma這兩個語素必須同時出現以符合關聯句式的意義。從結構上可以看出句法移位策略並未運用到這個結構中,因為這兩個語素可以出現在句法孤島之中,而不會造成句子的不合語法。此外,能夠被kha和ma所引介,並當作謂語的情狀語(situation types)都必須要符合unboundedness的限制。 語意上,這個關聯句式中的程度副詞kha可以一方面選擇一個程度性的謂語,另一方面也可以選擇一個非程度性的動態謂語做為它的補語。有鑑於此,個人提出kha可以「非選擇性地約束」(unselectively bind)程度性變數或是量詞性變數的看法。再者,這個關聯句式可被分析為一個量化性的三分結構,當中量化的動力源自於一個(隱藏)量化副詞,核心範疇對應到ma所引介的部份,限制範疇則對應到kha所修飾的部份。 這種關聯句式在語用上所顯現的「預期一違反語意」特性是kha和ma這個兩個語素在語用上交互作用所產生的結果,這就類似於英文的no matter wh的句型,且「預期一違反語意」是成對的關係,也就是說在kha句子中呈現正面的預期在ma的句子就出現負面語意的違反;反之,若在kha句子中呈現反面的預期,則在ma的句子就以正面的結果來違反。
The purpose of this thesis is to study the syntax, semantics and pragmatics of Taiwanese kha…ma construction and a quantificational analysis is proposed. This study has demonstrated for the first time how the Taiwanese kha… ma construction exhibits its properties in linguistics. Syntactically, this construction behaves divergently from the Taiwanese canonical comparative construction. The predicate of comparison in the canonical kha comparative must involve a gradable element or a predicate contains gradable sense. As for the Taiwanese kha…ma correlative construction, the predicate can be a gradable or a non-gradable one. In addition, this construction obligatorily requires two morphemes “kha and ma”, which have to co-occur with each other to keep the correlative sense. This construction does not involve any syntactic movement. Semantically, the situation type of predicate modified by kha and that of the predicated introduced by ma must obey the unboundedness condition. So, the predicate complement selected by the degree head kha can be a gradable or a non-gradable one. In other words, the degree kha unselectively binds degree variables as well as quantity variables depending on the predicates. Besides, the quantificational force in this construction comes from an (implicit) adverb of quantification and introduces the quantificational tripartite structure. The kha clause enters into the restrictive scope while the nuclear scope is provided by the ma clause. The syntactic and semantic mapping relation is in accordance with Liu’s (2008) Revised Extended Mapping Hypothesis. Pragmatically, the two morphemes kha and ma work together to contribute to expectation-contravention reading in line with English no matter wh- construction and represent a pair relation.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079545517
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41368
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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