標題: 關於「女人議題」:《玫瑰的羅曼史》,《女人城市之書》與《特伊勒斯與克莉賽緹》
On the “Women Question”: The Romance of the Rose, The Book of the City of Ladies, and Troilus and Criseyde
作者: 張端容
Chang, Tuan-Jung
金守民
馮品佳
外國語文學系外國文學與語言學碩士班
關鍵字: 喬叟;《特伊勒斯與克莉賽緹》;波伊提烏;命運;父權;克莉絲汀德皮;《玫瑰的羅曼史》;Chaucer;Troilus and Criseyde;Fortune;Patriarchy;Christine de Pizan;The Romance of the Rose
公開日期: 2010
摘要: 在1405年克莉絲汀德皮桑撰寫《女人城市之書》挑戰在《玫瑰的羅曼史》中眾多的反女性觀點,其觀點不僅源自於文學經典也源自於宗教經典。克莉絲汀主張「性別的差異無法辨別個體之間的差異,只有美德與道德才能讓人有所高下」。有別於克莉絲汀,喬叟選擇不一樣的方法來呈現自己對於「女人是否應該跟男人同等地被視為個體」這個問題的觀點。喬叟認為否認女人也是個體是非常不人道的。然而,他也非常困擾於女人被視為個體之後所可能產生的後果。這篇論文旨在透過喬叟《特洛伊斯與克莉賽緹》的兩位主角來呈現作者在「女人議題」上的矛盾立場。在《特伊勒斯與克莉賽緹》中,喬叟應用波伊提烏的《哲學的慰藉》來解讀命運與自由意志的關係。根據賴瑞史蓋倫的說法,命運在《特伊勒斯與克莉賽緹》的功能是彰顯了父權體制的不可逃避性。在喬叟的特洛伊故事中,雖然克莉賽緹在面對命運即為父權的情況下尚能夠運用他的自由意志與能力來判斷與行動;但事實上克莉賽緹所做的決定最後都使男人受惠,而男人正是父權體制的中心。相對地,特伊勒斯作為父權體制的一份子,揭露了命運/父權中牢不可破的階級概念。特洛伊斯與克莉賽緹對命運即父權的反應是有性別之分的,這也揭露了喬叟對於「女人是否應該從父權的控制中解脫」這個問題的遲疑。喬叟在「女人議題」的矛盾立場不僅代表他個人的觀點,更象徵中古世紀對此議題普遍的困擾與矛盾。
In 1405 Christine de Pizan writes The Book of the City of Ladies to challenge the misogynist conceptions in The Romance of the Rose which derives from religious as well as classical sources. Christine argues that it is “virtue and morality” that makes one superior to the other, rather than sexual difference. Chaucer chooses a different way to present his concerns about whether women should be equal to men and be regarded as individuals. Chaucer thinks that denying women as individuals is inhuman; however, he is also troubled by the consequence if women are considered individuals. This thesis aims to present Chaucer’s ambiguous position on the “women question” through both of his protagonists in Troilus and Criseyde. In Troilus and Criseyde, Chaucer applies Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy to explain the relationship between Fortune and free will. According to Larry Scanlon, the function of Fortune in Troilus and Criseyde is to show the inevitability of the patriarchal power. On one hand, Criseyde is able to show her free will and ability to judge and act when she confronts Fortune/patriarchy in Chaucer’s Trojan story. On the other, all the choices Criseyde makes turn out to benefit men, the central power of patriarchy. On the contrary, Troilus as a part of the patriarchal system reveals that the hierarchy in the designation of Fortune/patriarchy is unbreakable. The reactions of Troilus and Criseyde to Fortune/patriarchy are gendered and disclose Chaucer’s hesitation about whether women should be free from the control of patriarchy. Chaucer’s ambiguous position on the “women question” not only shows his personal viewpoints but also represents the troubles and contradictions in the Middle Ages.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079545507
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41362
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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