標題: 愛上,悲劇: 論李安電影《臥虎藏龍》,《色戒》以及《斷背山》中的倫理抉擇
In Love, with Tragedy:On the Ethical Choice in Ang Lee’s Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,Lust, Caution, and Brokeback Mountain
作者: 陳慧文
林建國
外國語文學系外國文學與語言學碩士班
關鍵字: 李安;悲劇;倫理抉擇;命運;必然性;愛情;Ang Lee;Tragedy;Ethical Choice;Fate;Necessity;Love
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 本文主要探討在李安的三部電影《臥虎藏龍》,《色戒》以及《斷背山》中關於希臘悲劇,倫理抉擇和愛情的觀點。從《推手》開始,李安在商業和藝術當中取得巧妙的平衡。所謂的商業就是通俗電影類型中的「衝突」元素。從《推手》到《斷背山》,李安沒有一部作品不是恪遵「衝突→解決→」的公式。不僅如此,李安在好萊塢的成功更證明了李安擅長的通俗劇衝突元素不限於古今中外,而是人性必然要面對的重要課題。李安一次又一次地闡釋:每個人的一生中面對最慘烈的鬥爭,不在於外在世界的刀光劍影,而是當個體的慾望受到社群價值的壓抑時,內心的掙扎難捨以及慾望的移轉流動。經由衝突產生的掙扎,緊繃,和倫理抉擇強迫人們重新思考人類最基本的需求。就這個觀點而言,也只有悲劇才能完整呈現這樣的人生自我衝突和抵觸。 本文一開始會分析現代觀點對於希臘悲劇中的悲劇精神統一的看法。根據悲劇精神的本質,李安細膩描述了悲劇人物如何在傳統封閉的環境下掙扎求生。透過巴斯特勒對於命運的觀點,尼采在《悲劇的誕生》中提到的太陽神和酒神的精神,以及亞里斯多德"行動"的論點,李安這三部電影中的人物在面對大環境的群體意識壓迫時,是毫無生存的空間。李慕白游盪在江湖道義和自我欲望間;王佳芝不斷拉扯在國家付予的重任和一個不該愛上的漢奸之間;恩尼斯和傑克這兩個同性戀者一生遭受異性戀主導社會的壓迫。每一個人物角色都在這痛苦的過程做出痛苦的決定,但這決定最終都一一帶領他們走向死亡的懷抱。最後,我們才默然發現原來驅使他們做這項決定和行動的力量,是愛情。
My thesis attempts to study the issue encompassing Greek tragedy, ethical choice, and love in Ang Lee’s Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Lust, Caution and Brokeback Mountain. Beginning with Pushing Hands, Ang Lee’s films ingeniously reach a balance between mainstream cinema and art house cinema. His mainstream strain deals with the element of “conflicts.” From Pushing Hands to Brokeback Mountain, every of these films abide by the formula of conflicts and solutions. More than that, Ang Lee’s success in Hollywood even proves that the conflicting issue he demonstrates is not confined to time and space. He deals with fundamental issue that humankind will confront in life. The struggle, tension, and ethical choice brought about by conflicts compel people to rethink the most basic need of humankind. In light of this, such a tension can only be revealed in its extreme form as tragedy. My thesis begins with the analysis of tragicalness in Greek tragedy, and looks for the common ground between the concept of tragedy and modernity. Applying the essential traits of tragedy to these three films, Ang Lee portrays tragic characters striving under the controversial and fixed environment. Using Gabriela Basterra’s perspective of fate, Apollonian and Dionysiac forces in Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy, and Aristotle’s concept of actions, Ang Lee’s characters in these three films have no place to survive while individual desire must confront collectivity. Li Mu Bai vacillates between the code in jianghu and his personal anxiety; Wang Chia Chih is torn between her duty and a collaborator with whom she cannot but fall in love; Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist, who are gay lovers, are repressed by their heterosexual society. All of them make a choice which only leads them to death while being involved in a dilemma. In the end, it is clear that the motivation behind their behaviors is love.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079545506
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41361
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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