標題: 從女性主義法學觀察性侵害法律改革之演進
A Legal Feminist's Perspective on Rape Law Reforms
作者: 金孟華
林志潔
Lin, Chih-Chieh
科技法律研究所
關鍵字: 性侵害犯罪;性侵害迷思;女性主義理論;平等;宰制;解構;patriarchy;rape law reform;feminism theory;criminal law
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 相較於刑法中的其他犯罪,性侵害犯罪有其特殊性。特殊之處可以分為兩個層面:第一,絕大多數的性侵害犯罪被害人都是女性;第二,犯罪黑數極高,被害人承受許多其他犯罪被害人所沒有之壓力。因此,美國的女性主義學者一向即將性侵害犯罪,視為父權體制存在之象徵,並針對性侵害犯罪在學理上進行了豐富的討論。我國女性主義深受美國女性主義發展之影響,而民國88年刑法之修正又是在婦女團體的主導下完成的,理論上我國刑法妨害性自主罪章,應會與美國女性主義理論之發展有一定程度之連結,但是在國內學術著作中,卻甚少有學者就此議題進行研究。是以,本論文之目的即在於透過文獻分析法,研究、整理美國女性主義各流派對於性侵害犯罪之討論,並試圖找出目前美國在理論與法律上發展之現況。最後,再將上述結論與我國法相連結,透過實證研究法,批判我國法律與實務,其能建構出一個更符合性別正義之司法環境。 為達成上述目的,本論文共可分為六章,首先,要了解性侵害案件是一種特殊的法律關係,就必須要意識到我們的社會是一個在父權體制下運作的社會。因此,第二章首先將探討到底什麼是父權體制,接著要討論的是針對這樣的父權體制,女性主義者有什麼樣的回應,討論的對象係針對五個主要的女性主義派別,分別為自由女性主義、馬克思女性主義、文化女性主義、基進女性主義以及後現代女性主義。第三章延續第二章之論述,採擇對於性侵害犯罪較為關心的女性主義理論,並將之大致上分為三種訴求:第一種是平等(equality),第二種是破除宰制(dominance)與附屬(subordination),第三種則是解構(deconstruct),其代表性的派別分別為:自由女性主義、基進女性主義以及後現代女性主義,上述各流派之立場及優缺點為何,為本章之討論重心。第四章以後現代女性主義為主軸,強調法律或是執法者應該要容許「變異」,不可透過刻板印象將一個複雜的事件簡化,以免以偏概全,忽視事件的真相。此外,反映且強化性別刻板印象之法律或觀念應被破除,以幫助人們在個案中探究事實,同時,強調性侵害犯罪迷思(rape myths)的破除,因為性侵害犯罪迷思是父權體制下,性別刻板印象在性侵害犯罪中的具體展現。第五章回過頭來看看我國的法律規定以及修法歷程。民國八十八年我國針對舊法中的「強姦罪」進行了全面性的修正,在舊法的體系下,強姦罪歸屬於第十六章「妨害風化罪」中,而新法將第十六章改為「妨害性自主罪」,並將妨害風化罪劃至新增訂的第十六章之一。至此,傳統上的強姦罪在法體系上完全脫離社會風化的大帽子而自成一格。這樣的修正究竟具有什麼樣的涵義?與美國法上的女性主義理論如何連結?本章擬從舊法的體系開始談起,介紹在舊法下,立法者的整體邏輯為何。最後,採擇前述之後現代女性主義之觀點,針對我國修法後之判決進行實證研究,以檢驗我國修法之實效為何。第六章則為結論與建議。
Rape is often regarded as a special kind of crime: first, rape victims are almost always female; second, the unreported rate of rape is exceptionally higher than any other crimes, rape victims tend not to reveal their cases to the justice system, but rather choose to endure the pain alone. Due to these reasons, legal feminists in the United States has claimed that the crime of rape is the evident of our patriarchy society over the past thirty years, and therefore, should be examined under feminism theories. Taiwanese feminist movements were deeply influenced by the US, and the feminists in Taiwan have made many progresses in the last ten years, one of the most important one is the reform of criminal law. However, for some reasons, no one has ever connected the ideals of US feminism movements with the details of Taiwanese rape law reform. The lack of discussion to the Taiwanese rape law has made the law become “hollow.” People no longer remember that rape law reforms are reflections of feminism ideals. Therefore, there are two objectives I would like to achieve: first, I would like to introduce the US feminism theories on rape and their influence to the law; second, I plan to connect these theories to the Taiwanese rape law and to reconstruct the theories which the law was evolved from. I used six chapters in my thesis to elaborate my objectives. The first chapter is about my motivation and my research methods; the second chapter introduces the basic ideas of the patriarchy society; the third chapter is the discussion on the mainstreams of feminism theories; the fourth chapter focuses down to the theories related to rape and how did they affect the law; the fifth chapter connects the theories to the Taiwanese criminal law, and to examine the result of the rape law reform ten years ago by analyzing court decisions; the sixth chapter is my conclusion.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079538503
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41329
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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