標題: 美國性侵害證據法則之研究-以破除性侵害迷思為中心
U.S. Evidence Law Regarding Rape- the Deconstruction of Rape Myths in Trials
作者: 陳又寧
Chen, Yu-Ning
林志潔
吳巡龍
Lin, Chih-Chieh
Wu, Hsun-Lung
科技法律研究所
關鍵字: 性侵害迷思;女性主義理論;性侵害被害人保護法;性侵害創傷症候群;熟識者性侵害;聯邦證據法第413條;Rape Myths;Feminist Legal Theories;Rape Shield Law;Rape Trauma Syndrome;Acquaintance Rape;Federal Evidence Law 413
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 在被害人多為女性的現實下,性侵害犯罪是一個與性別平等重重糾結的議題。除了性侵害犯罪本身彰顯了男性對於女性宰制外,父權體制對於女性的偏見更以隱微的形式顯現在所有刑事訴訟制度參與者的性別迷思之中,司法程序對於性侵被害人的不平等待遇使得性侵害報案率向來低落,成為犯罪黑數最高的案件類型。我國近年來針對性侵害犯罪的實體法面向已逐漸有深入的討論,但就證據法部分則尚無著墨。本文將先就父權體制下對於「女性」與「男性」的性別角色控制所產生的性侵害迷思進行分析,討論性侵害迷思如何影響我們對於「性侵害」、「性侵害被害人」、以及「性侵害行為人」的認知,並且因此造成事實發現者對於不符合性侵害典型的「熟識者性侵害」產生了偏見,導致性別刻板印象得以繼續複製在不正義的判決結果之中。接著,本文將以各女性主義理論如何看待性別特質的觀點切入,探討各女性主義理論流派對於父權體制下性別角色的批評。本文的重心將是介紹美國於70、80、90年代所進行的性侵害證據法改革。並且以破除審判中的性侵害迷思為中心,針對「性侵害被害人保護法」、「性侵害創傷症候群專家證人」、「聯邦證據法第413條」等三種性侵害案件審判所特有的證據法則於美國實務上的適用進行判決分析,探討被害人過往性行為於審判中的排除、性侵害創傷症候群專家證言的採用、以及被告過去犯罪行為的引進…等等美國40年來所進行的證據法改革在法院以及陪審團的操作下是否有助於性別角色的解構以及性別平等的追求,以供我國未來修法借鏡。
Under the fact that most rape victims are women, rape has always been an issue tangled with gender equality. In addition to the commitment of the crime itself, the bias against women in patriarchal society is also revealed through the rape myths in the minds of every participant of criminal procedures. Due to the inequality in rape trials, many did not report the crime. Although there has been many discussions regarding rape law reform in Taiwan, few is centered on the reform of evidence law. This thesis will first address the dichotomy between “man” and “woman” in the patriarchal system, and how does it influence our understanding toward rape, rape victim, and rapist, thus create the bias against the non-typical “acquaintance rape”. Next, the thesis will discuss the evidence law reforms in rape trials in the U.S., and using feminist theories to examine the application of these reforms in judicial practices. The thesis will conduct a case- by-case analysis to see if the exclusion of victim’s prior sexual history, the use of RTS expert testimony, and the admission of the defendant’s past misconduct will deconstruct the gender stereotypes in rape trials.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079538501
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41328
顯示於類別:畢業論文


文件中的檔案:

  1. 850101.pdf