標題: 共有或交換:偏好交易型式對人際喜好、互動品質、以及服務接觸中互動的動態變化之影響
Communal or Exchange:Impacts of Desired Transaction Type on Interpersonal Liking, Interaction Quality, and Interaction Dynamics in Service Encounters
作者: 胡友維
Hu,Yu-Wei
任維廉
涂榮庭
Jen, Wiliiam
Tu, Rungting
運輸與物流管理學系
關鍵字: 平衡理論;服務接觸;交易型式;共有;交換;人際偏好;互動品質;互動動態變化;balance theory;service encounter;transaction type;communal;exchange;interpersonal liking;interaction quality;interaction dynamics
公開日期: 2008
摘要: 服務接觸過去一直是服務行銷研究領域中的重點之一,而之前的研究也已探討了許多影響服務接觸成敗的因素。然而,過去許多學者僅單從顧客角度或是服務人員的角度來瞭解員工服務或顧客行為對服務接觸影響,而忽略服務接觸中顧客與服務人員的互動本質以及雙方同時對彼此行為與心理反應所造成的影響。因此,本篇研究引用平衡理論並探討服務接觸中四個重要的概念來研究服務參與者的心理與行為互動變化,此四個概念即偏好交易型式(共有或交換)、人際喜好、互動品質、互動的動態變化 (互助合作、合作、競爭、對抗)。而本研究在正式施測之前先進行40份問卷調查作為前測,以確定本研究情境設計的操弄效果以及問卷問項的信度與效度。在正式施測的實驗一與實驗二中,我們各收集120份問卷來檢驗本研究的理論模型與假設。結果顯示本研究問卷情境有很好的操弄效果,而且問卷問項也有很好的信度與效度。此外,本研究的假設均獲得統計上顯著支持。實驗一的結果說明當顧客與服務人員的偏好交易型式一致時,顧客比較容易對員工產生人際上的喜好並且知覺到較好的互動品質。而實驗二說明當顧客處於不平衡狀態時(合作或是競爭)並且想要轉變成平衡狀態時(互助合作或是對抗),顧客比較傾向選擇改變與員工的關係,而非改變自己對偏好交易型式的看法與態度。本研究為服務行銷領域提供了理論與實務上的貢獻,並讓服務業者與顧客能夠更瞭解影響服務接觸成敗的原因。
Service encounter has been a focus of service marketing research, and previous literature has explored and examined factors contributing successful service encounters. However, researchers has largely placed one-sided attention on either employees’ performance or customers’ behaviors, neglecting to address the interactive nature of service encounters and service participants’ potential psychological responses. To fill up the void, the present research adapts balance theory and introduces four concepts to illustrate participants’ psychological and behavioral interaction characteristics in a service encounter: desired transaction types (communal based or exchange-based), interpersonal liking, interaction quality, and interaction dynamics (Collaboration, Cooperation, Competition, and Confrontation). In this research, to carefully design the questionnaire, we recruited 40 participants to conduct a pretest. Then, another 240 participants were recruited for two scenario-based experiments to examine our hypotheses. Results show successful manipulations and suggest good reliabilities and validities of items for all constructs. Furthermore, all hypotheses of two studies were significantly supported. Study 1 shows that a match of desired transaction type would lead to higher level of personal liking that the customer has for the contact employee and good quality of interaction between the customer and the contact employee. Study 2 shows that when a customer who is in an imbalanced condition (cooperation or competition) and seeks a balanced interaction condition (collaboration or confrontation), He/she is more likely to change the relationship with the contact employee than to modify one’s desired transaction type to side with another. Our investigation of this topic contributes to the marketing literature in numerous ways. Finally, the author also presents theoretical and practical implications and provides marketers and servers better understanding about factors leading to successful service encounters.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079532514
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/41276
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