標題: 原住民族傳統智慧創作專用權之法學實證研究
Empirical Legal Study on the Right of the Traditional Cultural Expressions of Indigenous Peoples
作者: 林三元
Lin, San-Yuan
劉尚志
王敏銓
Liu, Shang-Jyh
Wang, Min-Chiuan
科技管理研究所
關鍵字: 傳統智慧創作;專用權;文化外溢;文化主體性;法學實證研究;Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs);Traditional intellectual creations;the right of the TCEs;Cultural spillover;Subject position in cultural expressions;Empirical legal study
公開日期: 2011
摘要: 「原住民族傳統智慧創作保護條例」立法通過,再經主管機關訂定相關施行細則之後,依規定取得智慧創作專用權之原住民族或部落,就主管機關認定並經登記之智慧創作,即得主張「智慧創作專用權」(智慧創作財產權及智慧創作人格權)。而原創條例賦予智慧創作專用權之權能,含括了所有權之積極權能:「使用、收益」,以及消極權能:「排除侵害」。則從憲法釋義學及大法官會議解釋之觀點而言,智慧創作專用權應屬憲法第15條之財產權類型之一。可見原創條例將原本一般人可以自由接近、使用之原住民族傳統文化表達,納為法律保護之客體,進而創設了新型態之財產權。 學理上對於實體財產權或智慧財產權之討論,已累積了相當可觀之成果,但對於原住民族特殊權利的論述則屬新興的領域,仍有待各方深入研究。由於缺少關於智慧創作專用權之學理探討,在比附援引的因襲之下,如果將專用權類比為實體財產或智慧財產,並借用相關之理論,用以理解或判斷關於原住民族智慧創作專用權之權利內涵,可能導致錯誤的判斷。 本論文以法學實證研究之取向,透過質性訪談資料分析程序──編碼(coding),嘗試從資料中建立智慧創作專用權之正當性論述。本論文認為,原創條例之立法目的之一在於「保護原住民文化」,對於智慧創作專用權之理解,必須立基於原住民族文化,而文化所涉及的深層意涵在於「他、我的區辨」。當原住民族致力於尋找族群之間的文化區辨時,法律規範(原創條例)設計,必須能夠協助原住民族在法制基礎上,建構民族認同的基礎,重現「文化主體性」。此外,立法保護原住民族智慧創作的同時,亦必須兼顧社會大眾接近原住民族文化,使各個族群有「相互結識」的機會,才能達到原創條例另一個立法目的──「促進原住民族文化發展」。而從原住民族分享的民族性出發,將「文化外溢」之效果視為智慧創作專用權之本質,始屬符合原創條例之規範精神。 關鍵字:傳統智慧創作、專用權、文化外溢、文化主體性、法學實證研究。
Under the Protection Act for the traditional intellectual creations of indigenous peoples and the regulations issued by the competent authority, specific aboriginal groups or tribes shall obtain the right of the traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) from the date of registration. The content of the right of TCEs includes licensing others to use such expressions and, in the case of infringement, demanding the infringer to remove it, where there is likelihood of infringement, a demand may be made to prevent such infringement. That is to say that the right of the TCEs is a whole new type of property right. Moreover, it forbids people to access the TCEs of indigenous peoples and perhaps scales down the public domain. In order to elaborate this new type of property correctly and to ward off mistakes in understanding the right of TCEs, this dissertation would like to bring up the justification for protecting the TCEs of indigenous peoples. To establish the theory, this dissertation will apply the methods of empirical legal study to the subject, which is to say that the theory is rooted on the material of interviewing the participators who are aboriginal cultural workers. This dissertation will argue that the first justification for protecting TCEs is to build up the subject position in cultural expressions of indigenous peoples that would distinguish TCEs from the main stream culture. In the next place, based on the inherent sharing culture, we should value the spillover of TCEs instead of collecting all the benefits of it, which will conform to the spirit of indigenous peoples in Taiwan.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079235808
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/40448
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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