標題: 鍾肇政《插天山之歌》及其改編電影之研究
A Study of Zhong Zhaozheng’s The Song of Chatian Mountain and Its Adaptation into Film
作者: 曾玉菁
Chiang, Shu-Chen
關鍵字: 鍾肇政;客家文學;插天山之歌;文學改編電影;台灣人三部曲;Zhong Zhaozheng;Hakka literature;The Song of Chatian Mountain;adaption from novel to film;The Trilogy of the Taiwanese
公開日期: 2008
摘要: 本論文欲以傳記研究和歷史研究的角度,對作家鍾肇政先生寫作《插天山之歌》的動機和創作背景,作進一步的了解。研究方法是以「後殖民文學」分析脫離日本殖民的歷程,以「女性主義文學」研究方法,分析奔妹作為女性的覺醒,並探討「階級」和「孤女現象」的議題。此外,亦探究《插天山之歌》電影的藝術手法,以及探討小說改編成電影後的相關問題。從人物的形塑和安排、情節的增刪、語言風格、主題意識、時間推移、鋪展地點以及小說語言與電影對白等方面,對《插天山之歌》電影和原著作比較,並深究小說改編成電影的差異和其意義。 鍾肇政先生成長於日據時代,接受日本教育的他在光復後開始學習中文,以中文寫作。兩度殖民經驗,促成了《台灣人三部曲》的完成。其中第三部《插天山之歌》小說的主題是「逃亡」,表面上是逃離日本警察的追捕,實際上則是欲掙脫國民黨的桎梏。一直以來,鍾肇政的作品以「台灣人是什麼」為母題,尋找台灣人的歷史定位,這對於台灣人「台灣意識」的形成,有著重要的影響。《插天山之歌》小說呈現後殖民文學中的「去殖民化與文化抗爭」、「被殖民者的主體性體驗」以及「殖民經驗的遺緒與創傷」;女主角奔妹則表現出女性主義中的「鬆動父權體系,解除性別壓迫」,用大地之母型的奔妹象徵台灣,彰顯了台灣的堅強與勇敢。電影《插天山之歌》由作家鍾肇政的自傳小說《八角塔下》和同名小說改編拍攝,電影情節及人物安排因應大銀幕而有所增刪,在場景的重現、服裝道具的安排,都力求寫實自然,並展現客家的風貌。而在人物的形塑上,大致保留小說中角色的主要性格,但明顯的「弱化」了男主角的英雄形象。鍾肇政刻畫的志驤除了政治意識的本土化之外,他的性焦慮和處理方式、以及入山的從低攀高的過程,無不關連到作者的「英雄」、「男子漢」的理念;相較之下,電影版的志驤由鏡頭平行移位的處理方式,側重的則是內心的徬徨與掙扎,行動力反倒不如奔妹的堅毅與果斷。 電影版的《插天山之歌》雖無法完全呈現小說文字背後的意涵,但它讓作家鍾肇政以及小說《插天山之歌》用另一種更為普及的藝術形式呈現。
This thesis is a study of Zhong Zhaozheng’s novel The Song of Chatian Mountain and its adaption into a film with the same title. With a focus on the two main characters Lu Zhixiang and Benmei, my research adopts postcolonialim and feminism to discuss the process of Lu’s de-colonization and Benmei’s awakening, which also involve the class issue as well as the metaphor of “the female orphan.” In terms of the filmic adaptation, the thesis compares its similarities to and differences from the original novel, in the order of characterization, story line, language style, theme, timeline, place arrangements and aesthetic effects. As the author of the novel has characterized the theme of this novel as “escape” which implies his (post)colonial experience, my discussion is on the primal fear he felt in his learning of Japanese-language education and on the new fear that he obtained in his re-learning of a new language—this time the Chinese—in his prime time as a postcolonial writer. The double experience of fear has made him decide to take “the meaning of being a Taiwanese” as the motif of his writing. The Song of Chatian Mountain records the male protagonist’s cultural struggle in de-colonization, his subjective experience of the colonized, and the remaining trauma of colonization. If he looks weak and victimized, the female protagonist, in comparison, has not only the motherly power of recovery but also the courage to break up the constraints of patriarchy. The filmic edition of this novel has combined Zhong’s two novels—Under the Eight-Cornered Tower as well as The Song of Chiatian Mountain, thus giving more description to the formative age of Lu Zhixiang. My observation is that the hero’s image in the novel has been reduced as the director is more interested in his interior personality such as irresolution and anxiety. While Lu in the novel is made to move from low to high positions to symbolize his heroic action, in the film he mostly has a parallel movement, giving the audience an impression that he is less active and determined than Benmei. Although the film cannot fully explore the depth of the literary representation, it does succeed in its artistic beauty in the form of popular culture.
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