標題: 文化接觸:台灣大學生與非英文母語外籍生的跨文化溝通與文化學習
Cultural Encounters: Intercultural Communication and Cultural Learning of Taiwanese College Students withNon-native English Speakers
作者: 曾湘茹
Tseng, Hsiang-Ju
黃淑真
Huang, Shu-Chen
英語教學研究所
關鍵字: 跨文化溝通;文化學習;intercultural communication;nonnative Enlgish speakers;cultural learning
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 近年來文化學習在第二╱外國語言學習領域漸受重視。為使文化學習充份融入語言學習中,Byram (1997)提出以「田野工作」(fieldwork)方式學習文化,能避免文化刻板印象的產生,並能促使發展「開放的態度」(openness attitude)與真實地經驗對話溝通。然而,過去文獻有關於透過田野工作學習文化的相關研究,多著重於第二╱外國語言學習者與英文母語人士的文化接觸。目前英文已成為國際語言,語言學習者有不少機會與同為非英文母語人士溝通。Alptekin (2002)認為語言學習者若只學習英文母語人士之文化已不符合現今的需求。基於此,本研究迎合目前非母語人士與非母語人士溝通為普遍現象的現況,以就讀北台灣的一所大學的四位大學生為研究對象。研究過程中,四位大學生兩兩成對,分別與亦為非英文母語人士的同校外籍生進行文化交流。本研究探討此活動對學生跨文化溝通能力(Intercultural competence)的影響、進而了解學生的溝通困難,以及學生對於進行此活動的感受。本研究資料取自學生的活動後書面感想、訪談,以及學生與外籍生之間的對話語音記錄。 本研究結果發現此活動幫助學生在他國文化、本國文化,以及在跨文化溝通等三方面上知識的增進。除此之外,本活動發展學生「開放的態度」(openness attitude)去面對其他外國文化,並且激發學生熱衷介紹本國文化及了解他國不同生活方式的興趣。針對溝通困難,本研究的資料顯示,學生的溝通困難涵蓋語言、情感、溝通技巧,以及社會文化相關知識等方面。一般而言,參與本研究的學生皆對本活動給予正面的評價,然而,學生亦提到本活動無法對學生在進行對話時所使用的英文文法進行糾正。學生更進一步建議增加外籍生的人數以及交談的次數。 本研究提供了一個鼓勵面對面的跨文化溝通以及一個如何在學習者本國文化當中了解「世界英語」(world Englishes)的學習方式。以下為本研究在英語教學實務上的應用。本活動可幫助學生了解英語的溝通目的,以致於提升學生的學習動機。學生的語言能力(linguistic competence),例如單字量的多寡以及發音的正確性,在跨文化溝通上仍為重要的因素。能詮釋和聯結(the skill of interpreting and relating)以及能發現和互動(the skill of discovering and interacting)的技能在跨文化溝通上更是不可或缺,應在語言課程中多培養練習。
The TESL/TEFL professionals have drawn considerable attention to the growing importance of cultural learning in recent decades. To embed cultural learning into language learning, Byram (1997) has suggested that the fieldwork approach is one of the efficient ways to avoid reinforcing cultural stereotypes, help develop openness attitude (Robinson & Nocon, 1996; Bateman, 2002), and experience real time, unrehearsed interaction. Nevertheless, amid previous cultural research associated with the fieldwork approach, most attention was given to the investigation of L2 learners’ contact with native speakers of English. This focus has claimed to be unrealistic since English now serves as an international language (Alptekin, 2002). Catering to the fact that nonnative-nonnative communication prevails, the present research involved four college freshman participants from diverse disciplines studying at a public university in northern Taiwan, paired up to communicate with international students who are nonnative speakers of English, studying in the same university. The study attempted to investigate how the intercultural task could foster the development of intercultural competence and to discover L2 learners’ communication difficulties and perception on the task. Data was collected from L2 learners’ written self-reflection reports, transcript of post-interviews, and transcript of the intercultural conversation between the learners and the international students. Results showed that the task helped L2 learners increase knowledge of foreign culture, native culture, together with knowledge of intercultural interaction. The task also fostered the development of the “openness” attitude, and aroused considerable interest in introducing one’s own culture to others and in knowing other people’s way of life. In terms of communication difficulties, the results indicated that the difficulties covered aspects of linguistics, affection, communication strategies, and sociocultural knowledge. In general, the learners showed positive attitudes toward the intercultural experience; however, few limitations such as little grammar correction given during the task were reported. The learners further suggested the number of foreign interlocutors and the frequency of the intercultural interaction perhaps could be increased. The present study is likely to provide a framework to enhance face-to-face intercultural interaction and to help L2 learners approach world Englishes (Kachru & Nelson, 1996) in L2 learners’ country. A few pedagogical implications were provided. Activities of having L2 learners conduct the intercultural task could possibly bring them to see the communicative purpose of English, further boosting motivation for English learning. Linguistic competence remains crucial; sufficient vocabulary repertoire and comprehensible pronunciation are fundamental to successful intercultural communication. Furthermore, the skill of interpreting and relating and skill of discovering and interacting (Byram, 1997) are discovered to be paramount and advised to practice in English class.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009559512
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/39725
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