High School Students’ Motivational Orientations and their Views on Teachers’ Teaching Behviors
|關鍵字:||教學行為;動機傾向;高中生;英文老師;Teaching Behaviors;Motivational Orientations;High School Students;English Teachers|
學習動機在英語學習上扮演了相當重要的角色。過去相關文獻中，許多學者曾經以英語教師的觀點，探討可能會影響英語學習者學習動機之教學行為(如 Cheng & D□rnyei, 2007; D□rnyei & Csizer, 1998; Guilloteaux & D□rnyei, 2008)。也有研究調查了外語學習者的動機特質與傾向(如Noels et al., 2000; Vallerand, 1997)，然而鮮少研究探討從學生的角度去看英語老師教學行為的頻率及重要性。因此，本研究採用文獻所提及之教學行為與學習動機類型進而調查320位高中二年級社會組及自然組學生的觀點及意見，並著重於學生對自己學習英語理由的同意程度及從學生觀點來看英文老師執行各類教學行為的頻率與學生對其認知的重要性是否有落差。
此問卷要素為學生動機特質及不同教學行為的類型。動機特質包括下列類型: (1)內在動機; (2)外在動機; (3)無動機。教學行為分為(1)給予正面回饋; (2)行為示範; (3)建立關係; (4)課程設計; (5)使學習者了解語言文化重要性; (6)增加目標動力。本研究採用敘述統計分析高中生的英文學習動機及他們對高中英文老師教學行為之觀感，並採用開放式題目來徵求學生更多的意見並加以分類。此外，學生的背景資料如性別及類組皆屬調查範疇，並用多變量及單變量雙因子變異數分析來檢驗男女及不同類組間的動機傾向與其對教學行為重要性的看法是否有所不同。最後，本研究也採用相關分析來檢驗動機傾向跟教學行為類型的關係。
(1) 高中生英語學習動機傾向為何? 不同類組及男女之間的動機傾向是否有所 不同?
(2) 高中生觀察到英語老師各類教學的行為頻率為何? 高中生對各類教學行為 在英語學習動機上所認知的重要性為何?
(3) 在性別與類組方面，高中生對英文老師執行各類教學行為重要性看法是否有 所不同?
(1) 整體而言，在Deci 和 Ryan (1985)的動機特質模型下，高中生英文的學習 動機趨向於模型上延伸線的偏右側具有自我控制意識及行動的外在動機及 內在動機，但卻沒有偏左側無動機的狀態。多變量變異數分析結果顯示性別 在動機特質上有顯著性差異。結果發現，男女生在無動機量表上有顯著差 異，也就是說女生不同意無動機特質的程度較高。然而類組別在動機特質上 無顯著差異，也就是說自然組和社會組學生在各類動機特質上無顯著差異。
(2) 高中生認為英語老師各類教學的實行頻率跟其教學行為的重要性都有顯著 的落差。也就是說學生觀察到的教學行為頻率皆顯著低於學生對其教學行為 所認知的重要性。
(3) 雙因子變異數分析結果顯示高中生在性別及類組上，對於各類教學行 為重要性看法並無顯著差異。也就是說各類教學行為上，學生的認知不因性 別及類組而有所差異。
(4) 高中生的內在動機跟其所認知的各類教學行為重要性皆呈現正相關，但無動 機皆與教學行為呈現負相關的情形。也就是說，有越高程度內在動機的學 生，就會認為各類教學行為越重要。有越高程度無動機的學生，就會認為各 類教學行為越不重要。
ABSTRACT As learning motivation plays a key role in the mastery of a foreign language, many researchers have investigated the behaviors that EFL teachers consider motivating to students across various educational levels (e.g., Cheng & D□rnyei, 2007; D□rnyei & Csizer, 1998; Guilloteaux & D□rnyei, 2008). On the other hand, still many researchers have examined motivational orientations among foreign language learners (e.g., Noels et al., 2000; Vallerand, 1997). Nonetheless, little research has been conducted from the viewpoints of students at a specific educational level. As a result, this present study aimed to explore high school students’ viewpoints on EFL teachers’ various types of teaching behaviors and high school students’ motivational orientations. Three hundred and twenty second-year high school students of different academic tracks participated in the present study. One questionnaire consisting of close-ended and open-ended questions was administered. For the close-ended questions, I allowed high school students to self-report their motivational orientations in terms of extrinsic, intrinsic and amotivation orientations. Furthermore, I aimed to investigate students’ perceptions on the frequency and importance in terms of the following teaching behaviors: (1) teacher discourse (i.e., positive retrospective evaluation, role modeling, and establishing relevance) (2) activity and course design, (3) familiarizing learners with L2 related cultures and values, and (4) increasing goal orientedness. For the close-ended questions, the descriptive statistics, two-way MANOVA, two-way ANOVA and correlation analysis were performed to examine the participants’ self-reported motivational orientations and their perceptions on teaching behaviors. For the open-ended questions, I intended to probe students’ opinion further regarding their reasons for learning English and the teaching behaviors they consider to be motivational, thus supplementing and triangulating their responses to the close-ended questions. The research questions are stated as follows: (1) What are high school students’ English learning motivational orientations? Is there any significance by genders and academic tracks? (2) What are high school participants’ perceptions on the frequency and importance of EFL teachers’ teaching behaviors? (3) To what extent do high school students with different genders and academic tracks perceive the importance of EFL teachers’ teaching behaviors? (4) What is the correlation between high school students' self-reported motivational orientations and their perceptions on various types of teaching behaviors? The results are stated as follows: (1) Generally, the results revealed that high school students were at the more self-determined end of extrinsic orientation and the most self-determined end of intrinsic orientation, as depicted on the continuum in Deci and Ryan’s (1985) model. Furthermore, the results indicated that high school students manifested the highest level of extrinsic orientation, followed by intrinsic orientation, and amotivation. On the other hand, female students endorsed higher level of disagreement on amotivation than male students did whereas they endorsed equal level of agreement on intrinsic and extrinsic orientations. (2) In view of the mean and significant differences, the results of each type of teaching behavior revealed the mismatch between the observed and perceived teaching behaviors by high school students, suggesting the underutilization of the teaching behaviors relative to their perceived importance. (3) The results revealed that students with different background variables (i.e., genders and academic tracks) perceived various types of teaching behavior to be equally important to them. (4) Finally and equally important were the positive and negative correlations that were found between students’ self-reported motivational orientations and their perceptions on the importance of various teaching behaviors. That is, the more intrinsically oriented high school students were, the more important they consider most types of teaching behavior to be. In addition, I found the greater degree of amotivation students had, the less likely they perceived teaching behaviors of various types to be important. In conclusion, these findings may provide EFL teachers with pedagogical recommendations to refer to while conducting English classes. Most importantly, EFL teachers could take learners’ motivational orientations into account before conducting different types of teaching behaviors as mentioned earlier.
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