標題: 台灣花卉產業引進花卉環保專案程序之研究
The Process of Introducing MPS to the Flower Industry in Taiwan
作者: 楊沂茹
韓復華
梁高榮
運輸與物流管理學系
關鍵字: 花卉產業;花卉環保專案;花卉供應鏈;Flower Industry;MPS;Flower Supply Chain
公開日期: 2007
摘要: 荷蘭的「花卉環保專案(Milieu Programma Sierteelt,MPS)」為目前全球花卉市場中最普遍的國際環保標章。荷蘭於1993年創立MPS制度,當時,荷蘭正面臨非洲利用低價花卉與之競爭的困境。為將花卉由信用品(Credence Goods)轉為搜尋品(Search Goods)以將環保的信號成功地傳遞給消費者。於是荷蘭利用MPS認證重建花卉市場之競爭力。發展至今MPS在全球42個國家中有超過4000多個會員,且在荷蘭的花卉及盆栽拍賣市場中,約70%均擁有MPS認證。由此可見,MPS系統之導入將是未來提供我國花卉供應鏈之附加價值與進入歐洲先進國家花卉市場競爭的關鍵因素之一。 在台灣的農業當中,花卉被視為最具潛力的產業之ㄧ。若台灣花卉產業不儘快取得MPS認證,以民國96年台灣出口歐洲量值為例,粗略估計,台灣花卉外銷每年至少將損失近1千多萬美金;引進MPS認證已是刻不容緩的任務。然而台灣大部分的花農、零售商對於MPS的認知有限,也缺少如何引進MPS之相關研究。有鑑於此,本研究針對台灣花卉產業如何引進MPS之程序進行研究。 本研究首先分析花卉產業的供應鏈結構,並分別以中國與日本由荷蘭引進MPS認證的模式,做為我國引進MPS制度的參考依據。中國是集權式國家,其引進是由官方的「中國國家認證認可監督委員會」主導一切相關程序。日本是民主開放國家,其引進以業界代表組織設立MPS Japan負責相關業務。本研究結合兩國之程序建構出屬於台灣花卉產業兩階段的MPS引進模式。第一階段以中國為借鏡,建議由農委會代表我國與荷蘭MPS基金會進行初步接觸;第二階段則以日本為借鏡,整合花卉團體籌備MPS Taiwan機構,由該機構與荷蘭MPS基金會確立協商內容並簽訂合約。本研究之結果應可提供未來建立台灣MPS制度之參考,以及早因應國際花卉市場之競爭壓力。此外,兩岸三通即將展開,台灣花卉市場亦將面臨中國以及其他國家的低價花卉競爭的挑戰,本研究對引進MPS制度之探討亦可提供建立台灣花卉認證制度之借鏡,以鞏固花卉內銷市場之實力。
The MPS in Holland was founded in 1993, mainly to act against the competition brought by Africa’s low cost flowers. The MPS certification process involved the conversion of Credence Goods into Search Goods, which made Holland regain its competitiveness in the flower market. Today, MPS is considered to be the best known international certification label in the global flower market. Until March 2008, there are more than 4000 MPS members in 42 countries. About 70% of the flowers in Holland’s auction market are MPS certified. MPS certification therefore plays an important role for the flower industry to compete in the European and worldwide market. Flowers are one of the most potential products in Taiwan’s agriculture. Without MPS certification, it is estimated that Taiwan flowers for sales abroad will lose nearly more than ten million dollars annually. However most of Taiwanese flower growers and retailers are still not aware of MPS. This research is thus focused on the study of how to introduce MPS to the flower industry in Taiwan. In this research, we first analyzed the supply chain structure of the flower industry in Taiwan, and studied different MPS approaches of various countries. We then propose that the combination of Japanese and Chinese approaches may provide a good framework to set up an MPS system in Taiwan. First, it is suggested that our government should play the leading role to engage with MPS Foundation in Holland as the Chinese government did in 2006. Second, after first engagement by the government, we propose to follow the Japanese approach. Representatives of the flower industry, instead of the government, are responsible to negotiate with MPS Foundation to set up a formal organization which will be in charge of the MPS certification in Taiwan, i.e. the future MPS Taiwan. Our study would help the Taiwanese flower industry to regain its competitiveness in the international market. The proposed MPS introduction procedure in our paper also provides a good framework to set up a national flower certification system in Taiwan, which will effectively protect our domestic flower market from low-cost competition from countries such as China and Thailand in the near future.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009532535
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/39135
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