標題: A computational study of regioselectivity in a cyclodextrin-mediated Diels-Alder reaction: Revelation of site selectivity and the importance of shallow binding and multiple binding modes
作者: Li, WS
Chung, WS
Chao, I
應用化學系
Department of Applied Chemistry
關鍵字: cycloadditions;cyclodextrin;molecular dynamics calculations;transition structure
公開日期: 17-Feb-2003
摘要: The use of a cyclodextrin . Diels-Alder transition structure complex (CD . TS) as a model in molecular dynamics simulations has enabled us to gain insight into the controlling factors in the cyclodextrin-mediated Diels-Alder reaction of methyl-p-benzoquinone with isoprene. MD Simulations were carried out with multiple binding configurations of the CD . TS (TS = meta-TS, para-TS) complexes at the top and bottom rims of beta-CD. We discovered that i) only shallow binding with the CD is necessary for the regioselectivity, and multiple binding geometries are possible: ii) the narrow bottom rim. with the primary hydroxyl groups, of the CD binds both regio-TSs better than at the wider top rim (secondary hydroxyl groups), which was unexpected from the perspective of shape complementarity that governs the stability of most CD . guest complexes. Overall, the bottom rim of the CD exhibits higher regioisomer discrimination for the meta-TS; iii) structural clustering analyses of the CD . TS configurations (sampled during MD simulations) have enabled us to evaluate the binding energies of the different binding configurations. The result indicates that there is a direct correlation between meta-product selectivity and a higher number of binding configurations favoring the formation of the CD . meta-TS complex, The main forces of stabilization in the CD . TS complexes are the van der Waals interactions when the TS is bound at the top rim. At the bottom rim, closer contacts between polar functional groups of the TS and CD have increased the importance of electrostatic interactions, We found that van der Waals, solvation, and torsional forces are less favorable for complexation at the bottom rime however, this is compensated by large favorable electrostatic interactions. With insights obtained from the study of CD . TS complexes and MD simulations of the modified heptakis-[6-O-(2-hydroxyl)propyl]-beta-CD, we were able to explain why a low selectivity was observed when the Diels-Alder reaction was carried out in this modified CD. Two types of search method [Monte Carlo and multiple minimum (MCMM) and molecular dynamics (MD)] to explore and evaluate the different possible binding geometries of the TS within beta-CD, were discussed.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200390117
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/28090
ISSN: 0947-6539
DOI: 10.1002/chem.200390117
期刊: CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL
Volume: 9
Issue: 4
起始頁: 951
結束頁: 962
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