Title: Low-Temperature Microwave Annealing Processes for Future IC Fabrication-A Review
Authors: Lee, Yao-Jen
Cho, Ta-Chun
Chuang, Shang-Shiun
Hsueh, Fu-Kuo
Lu, Yu-Lun
Sung, Po-Jung
Chen, Hsiu-Chih
Current, Michael I.
Tseng, Tseung-Yuen
Chao, Tien-Sheng
Hu, Chenming
Yang, Fu-Liang
Department of Electrophysics
Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics
Keywords: Dopant activation;low temperature;microwave;microwave annealing (MWA);NiGe;solid phase epitaxial growth (SPEG);temperature effect;uniformity
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2014
Abstract: Microwave annealing (MWA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of dopants in implanted Si are compared in their abilities to produce very shallow and highly activated junctions. First, arsenic (As), phosphorus (P), and BF2 implants in Si substrate were annealed by MWA at temperatures below 550 degrees C. Next, enhancing the substitutional carbon concentration ([C] sub) by cluster carbon implantation in (100) Si substrates with MWA or RTA techniques was investigated. Annealing temperatures and time effects were studied. Different formation mechanisms of SiCx layer were observed. In addition, substrate temperature is an important factor for dopant activation during MWA and in situ doped a-Si on oxide/Si substrate or glass were compared to elucidate the substrate temperature effect. After the discussion of dopant activation in Si substrates, low temperature formation of ultrathin NiGe layer is presented. Ultrathin NiGe films with low sheet resistance have been demonstrated with a novel two-step MWA process. In the two-step MWA process, the first step anneals the sample with low power MWA, and the second step applies higher power MWA for reducing sheet resistance. During fixed-frequency microwave heating, standing wave patterns may be present in the MWA chamber resulting in nodes and antinodes and thermal variations over the process wafer. Therefore, the effects of Si or quartz susceptor wafers on dopant activation and sheet resistance uniformity during fixed-frequency MWA were investigated.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TED.2014.2300898
ISSN: 0018-9383
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2014.2300898
Volume: 61
Issue: 3
Begin Page: 651
End Page: 665
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