|Title:||Crystal Structures of Vertebrate Dihydropyrimidinase and Complexes from Tetraodon nigroviridis with Lysine Carbamylation METAL AND STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION AND FUNCTION|
Chan, Sunney I.
Department of Biological Science and Technology
|Keywords:||Crystal Structure;Crystallography;Metalloenzymes;Post-translational Modification;Protein Carboxylation;Protein Complexes|
|Abstract:||Lysine carbamylation, a post-translational modification, facilitates metal coordination for specific enzymatic activities. We have determined structures of the vertebrate dihydropyrimidinase from Tetraodon nigroviridis (TnDhp) in various states: the apoenzyme as well as two forms of the holoenzyme with one and two metals at the catalytic site. The essential active-site structural requirements have been identified for the possible existence of four metal-mediated stages of lysine carbamylation. Only one metal is sufficient for stabilizing lysine carbamylation; however, the post-translational lysine carbamylation facilitates additional metal coordination for the regulation of specific enzymatic activities through controlling the conformations of two dynamic loops, Ala(69)-Arg(74) and Met(158)-Met(165), located in the tunnel for the substrate entrance. The substrate/product tunnel is in the open form in the apo-TnDhp, in the intermediate state in the monometal TnDhp, and in the closed form in the dimetal TnDhp structure, respectively. Structural comparison also suggests that the C-terminal tail plays a role in the enzymatic function through interactions with the Ala(69)-Arg(74) dynamic loop. In addition, the structures of the dimetal TnDhp in complexes with hydantoin, N-carbamyl--alanine, and N-carbamyl--amino isobutyrate as well as apo-TnDhp in complex with a product analog, N-(2-acetamido)-iminodiacetic acid, have been determined. These structural results illustrate how a protein exploits unique lysines and the metal distribution to accomplish lysine carbamylation as well as subsequent enzymatic functions.|
|Journal:||JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY|
|Appears in Collections:||Articles|
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