Title: Side Chain Structure Affects the Photovoltaic Performance of Two-Dimensional Conjugated Polymers
Authors: Jiang, Jian-Ming
Lin, His-Kuei
Lin, Yu-Che
Chen, Hsiu-Cheng
Lan, Shang-Che
Chang, Chiao-Kai
Wei, Kung-Hwa
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Issue Date: 14-Jan-2014
Abstract: We used Stille coupling of electron-rich benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) presenting conjugated alkylthiophene (T), alkylphenyl (P), or alkylfuran (F) side chains with electron-deficient alkoxy-modified 2,1,3-benzooxadiazole (BO) moieties to obtain a series of two-dimensional, conjugated, D-pi-A polymers (PBDTTBO, PBDTPBO, and PBDTFBO). The side chains of the BDT units altered the solubility, conformations, and electronic properties of the synthesized conjugated, polymers, allowing tuning of their photovoltaic properties when blended with fullerenes. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the presence of these side chain groups on the BDT donor units affected the torsion angles between the side chain groups and the conjugated main chains but resulted in only slightly different energy levels for the highest occupied molecular orbitals for these polymers, consistent with results obtained experimentally using cyclic voltammetry. These polymers displayed excellent thermal stabilities (5 wt % degradation temperatures: >330 degrees C) and broad spectral absorptions (from 450 to 700 nm). Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the morphologies of active layers comprising these two-dimensional conjugated polymers and the fullerene derivative PC71BM did, however, vary substantially depending on the structure of the side chains that affects the solubility of the polymers. As a result, the efficiencies of photovoltaic devices incorporating PBDTFBO, PBDTPBO, or PBDTTBO polymers and PC71BM varied greatly, from 3.6 to 5.9%. When using 1-chloronaphthalene (1 vol %) or 1,8-diiodooctane (1 vol %) as an additive for processing the active layer, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of photovoltaic devices incorporating blends of PBDTFBO, PBDTPBO, or PBDTTBO and PC71BM (1:2) improved to 5.4, 6.4, and 7.4%, respectively, due to their optimized morphologies, with the PCE of 7.4% being among the highest values reported for conjugated polymers involving BO moieties. Thus, the photovoltaic properties of these conjugated polymers were highly tunable through slight modifications of their side chain structures.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma401897b
ISSN: 0024-9297
DOI: 10.1021/ma401897b
Volume: 47
Issue: 1
Begin Page: 70
End Page: 78
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