標題: Thermomigration in solder joints
作者: Chen, Chih
Hsiao, Hsiang-Yao
Chang, Yuan-Wei
Ouyang, Fanyi
Tu, K. N.
材料科學與工程學系
電子工程學系及電子研究所
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics
關鍵字: Thermomigration;Solder;Electromigration;Diffusion;Packaging
公開日期: 1-九月-2012
摘要: In 3D IC technology, the vertical interconnection consists of through-Si-vias (TSV) and micro solder bumps. The size of the micro-bump is approaching 10 mu m, which is the diameter of TSV. Since joule heating is expected to be the most serious issue in 3D IC, heat flux must be conducted away by temperature gradient. If there is a temperature difference of 1 degrees C across a micro-bump, the temperature gradient will be 1000 degrees C/cm, which can cause thermomigration at the device operation temperature around 100 degrees C. Thus thermomigration will become a very serious reliability problem in 3D IC technology. We review here the fundamentals of thermomigration of atoms in microbump materials; both molten state and solid state thermomigration in solder alloys will be considered. The thermomigration in Pb-containing solder joints is discussed first. The Pb atoms move to the cold end while Sn atoms move to the hot end. Then thermomigration in Pb-free SnAg solder joints is reviewed. The Sn atoms move to the hot end, but the Ag atoms migrate to the cold end. Thermomigration of other metallization elements, such as Cu, Ti and Ni is also presented in this paper. In solid state, copper atoms diffuse rapidly via interstitially to the cold end, forming voids in the hot end. In molten state, Cu thermomigration affects the formation of intermetallic compounds. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2012.11.001
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/21098
ISSN: 0927-796X
DOI: 10.1016/j.mser.2012.11.001
期刊: MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING R-REPORTS
Volume: 73
Issue: 9-10
起始頁: 85
結束頁: 100
顯示於類別:期刊論文


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  1. 000314437100001.pdf