標題: Wafer-to-Wafer Alignment for Three-Dimensional Integration: A Review
作者: Lee, Sang Hwui
Chen, Kuan-Neng
Lu, James Jian-Qiang
電子工程學系及電子研究所
Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics
關鍵字: Alignment;3-D integration;wafer bonding;wafer-level packaging
公開日期: 1-八月-2011
摘要: This paper presents a review of the wafer-to-wafer alignment used for 3-D integration. This technology is an important manufacturing technique for advanced microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems, including 3-D integrated circuits, advanced wafer-level packaging, and microfluidics. Commercially available alignment tools provide prebonding wafer-to-wafer misalignment tolerances on the order of 0.25 mu m. However, better alignment accuracy is required for increasing demands for higher density of through-strata vias and bonded interstrata vias, whereas issues with wafer-level alignment uniformity and reliability still remain. Three-dimensional processes also affect the alignment accuracy, although the misalignment could be reduced to certain extent by process control. This paper provides a comprehensive review of current research activities over wafer-to-wafer alignment, including alignment methods, accuracy requirements, and possible misalignments and fundamental issues. Current misalignment concerns of the major bonding approaches are discussed with detailed alignment results. The fundamental issues associated with wafer alignment are addressed, such as alignment mechanisms, uniformity, reproducibility, thermal mismatch, and materials. Alternative alignment approaches are discussed, and perspectives for wafer-to-wafer alignment are given.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2011.2148161
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/20926
ISSN: 1057-7157
DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2011.2148161
期刊: JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS
Volume: 20
Issue: 4
起始頁: 885
結束頁: 898
顯示於類別:期刊論文


文件中的檔案:

  1. 000293751100015.pdf