Title: HDAC Inhibitors Augmented Cell Migration and Metastasis through Induction of PKCs Leading to Identification of Low Toxicity Modalities for Combination Cancer Therapy
Authors: Lin, Kuen-Tyng
Wang, Yi-Wei
Chen, Chiung-Tong
Ho, Chun-Ming
Su, Wen-Hui
Jou, Yuh-Shan
Institude of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2012
Abstract: Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are actively explored as new-generation epigenetic drugs but have low efficacy in cancer monotherapy. To reveal new mechanism for combination therapy, we show that HDACi induce cell death but simultaneously activate tumor-progressive genes to ruin therapeutic efficacy. Combined treatments to target tumorigenesis and HDACi-activated metastasis with low toxic modalities could develop new strategies for long-term cancer therapy. Experimental Design: Because metastasis is the major cause of cancer mortality, we measured cell migration activity and profiled metastasis-related gene expressions in HDACi-treated cancer cells. We developed low toxic combination modalities targeting tumorigenesis and HDACi-activated metastasis for preclinical therapies in mice. Results: We showed that cell migration activity was dramatically and dose dependently enhanced by various classes of HDACi treatments in 13 of 30 examined human breast, gastric, liver, and lung cancer cell lines. Tumor metastasis was also enhanced in HDACi-treated mice. HDACi treatments activated multiple PKCs and downstream substrates along with upregulated proapoptotic p21. For targeting tumorigenesis and metastasis with immediate clinical impact, we showed that new modalities of HDACi combined drugs with PKC inhibitory agent, curcumin or tamoxifen, not only suppressed HDACi-activated tumor progressive proteins and cell migration in vitro but also inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Conclusion: Treatments of different structural classes of HDACi simultaneously induced cell death and promoted cell migration and metastasis in multiple cancer cell types. Suppression of HDACi-induced PKCs leads to development of low toxic and long-term therapeutic strategies to potentially treat cancer as a chronic disease. Clin Cancer Res; 18(17); 4691-701. (C)2012 AACR.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0633
ISSN: 1078-0432
DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0633
Volume: 18
Issue: 17
Begin Page: 4691
End Page: 4701
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