|標題:||The Effect of Calcium and Halide Ions on the Gramicidin A Molecular State and Antimicrobial Activity|
|作者:||Carillo, Kathleen D.|
Tzou, Der-Lii M.
Department of Applied Chemistry
|關鍵字:||gramicidin A;halide;molecular state;antimicrobial activity;dissociation|
|摘要:||Gramicidin A (gA) forms several convertible conformations in different environments. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium halides on the molecular state and antimicrobial activity of gramicidin A. The molecular state of gramicidin A is highly affected by the concentration of calcium salt and the type of halide anion. Gramicidin A can exist in two states that can be characterized by circular dichroism (CD), mass, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. In State 1, the main molecular state of gramicidin A is as a dimer, and the addition of calcium salt can convert a mixture of four species into a single species, which is possibly a left-handed parallel double helix. In State 2, the addition of calcium halides drives gramicidin A dissociation and denaturation from a structured dimer into a rapid equilibrium of structured/unstructured monomer. We found that the abilities of dissociation and denaturation were highly dependent on the type of halide anion. The dissociation ability of calcium halides may play a vital role in the antimicrobial activity, as the structured monomeric form had the highest antimicrobial activity. Herein, our study demonstrated that the molecular state was correlated with the antimicrobial activity.|
|期刊:||INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES|
|Appears in Collections:||Articles|