|標題:||Agarose-Based Gel-Phase Microextraction Technique for Quick Sampling of Polar Analytes Adsorbed on Surfaces|
Urban, Pawel L.
Department of Applied Chemistry
|摘要:||Sampling and extraction of chemical residues present on flat or curved surfaces as well as touch-sensitive objects are challenging. Hydrogels are characterized by high mechanical flexibility and water content. Thus, they are an ideal medium for transferring water-soluble analytes from a sampled surface to the next stage of an analytical workflow. Here, we demonstrate gel-phase microextraction (GPME), in which disks of blended hydrogels are utilized to lift traces of water-soluble substances adsorbed on surfaces. The protocol has been optimized in a series of tests involving fluorometric and mass spectrometric measurements. Compared with the pure agarose hydrogel, most of the tested blended hydrogels provide a higher efficiency for the sampling/extraction of a model analyte, fluorescein. The blended hydrogel disks are incorporated into three-dimensional (3D)-printed acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene chips to create easy-to-use sampling probes. We exemplify the suitability of this improved GPME approach in sampling chemical residues present on the skin, glass, and daily use objects. In these tests, the extracts were analyzed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer fitted with an electrospray ion source operated in the positive- and negative-ion modes. The method enabled the detection of diclofenac on excised porcine skin fragments exposed to a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and sweat residues (lactic acid) left on surfaces touched by humans. The limits of detection for diclofenac and lactic acid in hydrogel extract were 6.4 x 10(-6) and 2.1 x 10(-5) M, respectively. In a model experiment, conducted using the presented approach, the amount of lactic acid on a glass slide with fingerprints was estimated to be similar to 1.4 x 10(-7) mol cm(-2).|
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