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dc.contributor.authorSchubert, Carla R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCruickshanks, Karen J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFischer, Mary E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPinto, A. Alexen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Yanjunen_US
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Guan-Huaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKlein, Barbara E. K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKlein, Ronalden_US
dc.contributor.authorPankow, James S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPaulsen, Adam J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDalton, Dayna S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTweed, Ted S.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-13T01:09:58Z-
dc.date.available2019-12-13T01:09:58Z-
dc.date.issued2019-11-01en_US
dc.identifier.issn1079-5006en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz011en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11536/153047-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Sensorineural impairments and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and disease (CVD) in midlife may be important predictors of future cognitive health, but longitudinal studies that include multiple sensorineural measures in middle-aged adults are lacking. Methods: Hearing, vision, and olfaction, and CVRF and CVD were measured at the Beaver Dam Offspring Study baseline (2005-2008) examination. The Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Tests A and B were administered at all phases and additional cognitive function measures were obtained at 5 (2010-2013) and 10 years (2015-2017). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations between baseline sensorineural impairments, CVRF, CVD, and 10-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment and decline. Results: There were 2,556 participants (22-84 years) without cognitive impairment at baseline and data from at least one follow-up. In a multivariable model including age, sex, education, and head injury, visual impairment (hazard ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.34, 5.02), olfactory impairment (hazard ratio = 3.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.53, 6.59), CVD (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.24, 4.52), and not consuming alcohol in the past year (hazard ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.16, 4.19) were associated with the 10-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment. Current smoking and diabetes were associated with increased risk, and exercise with decreased risk, of 10-year decline in cognitive function. Conclusions: Visual and olfactory impairments, CVRF, and CVD were associated with the 10-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment and decline in middle-aged adults. Identifying modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline and impairment in midlife may provide opportunities for prevention or treatment and improve cognitive health later in life.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.subjectHearing lossen_US
dc.subjectOlfactory impairmenten_US
dc.subjectEpidemiologyen_US
dc.subjectCognitive agingen_US
dc.titleSensorineural Impairments, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and 10-Year Incidence of Cognitive Impairment and Decline in Midlife: The Beaver Dam Offspring Studyen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/gerona/glz011en_US
dc.identifier.journalJOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES A-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MEDICAL SCIENCESen_US
dc.citation.volume74en_US
dc.citation.issue11en_US
dc.citation.spage1786en_US
dc.citation.epage1792en_US
dc.contributor.department統計學研究所zh_TW
dc.contributor.departmentInstitute of Statisticsen_US
dc.identifier.wosnumberWOS:000491242600013en_US
dc.citation.woscount0en_US
Appears in Collections:Articles