|標題:||Sensorineural Impairments, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and 10-Year Incidence of Cognitive Impairment and Decline in Midlife: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study|
|作者:||Schubert, Carla R.|
Cruickshanks, Karen J.
Fischer, Mary E.
Pinto, A. Alex
Klein, Barbara E. K.
Pankow, James S.
Paulsen, Adam J.
Dalton, Dayna S.
Tweed, Ted S.
Institute of Statistics
|關鍵字:||Hearing loss;Olfactory impairment;Epidemiology;Cognitive aging|
|摘要:||Background: Sensorineural impairments and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and disease (CVD) in midlife may be important predictors of future cognitive health, but longitudinal studies that include multiple sensorineural measures in middle-aged adults are lacking. Methods: Hearing, vision, and olfaction, and CVRF and CVD were measured at the Beaver Dam Offspring Study baseline (2005-2008) examination. The Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Tests A and B were administered at all phases and additional cognitive function measures were obtained at 5 (2010-2013) and 10 years (2015-2017). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations between baseline sensorineural impairments, CVRF, CVD, and 10-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment and decline. Results: There were 2,556 participants (22-84 years) without cognitive impairment at baseline and data from at least one follow-up. In a multivariable model including age, sex, education, and head injury, visual impairment (hazard ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.34, 5.02), olfactory impairment (hazard ratio = 3.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.53, 6.59), CVD (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.24, 4.52), and not consuming alcohol in the past year (hazard ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.16, 4.19) were associated with the 10-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment. Current smoking and diabetes were associated with increased risk, and exercise with decreased risk, of 10-year decline in cognitive function. Conclusions: Visual and olfactory impairments, CVRF, and CVD were associated with the 10-year cumulative incidence of cognitive impairment and decline in middle-aged adults. Identifying modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline and impairment in midlife may provide opportunities for prevention or treatment and improve cognitive health later in life.|
|期刊:||JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES A-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MEDICAL SCIENCES|
|Appears in Collections:||Articles|