|標題:||Investigating Material Changes at Different Gadolinium Doping Power Levels in Indium-Tin Oxide Intended for Use as an Insulator in Resistive Switching Memory|
Sze, Simon M.
Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics
|關鍵字:||Gadolinium (Gd);indium-tin oxide (ITO);resistive random access memory (RRAM);transparency|
|摘要:||This paper investigates material modifications induced by cosputtering indium-tin oxide (ITO) with gadolinium (Gd) at two different power levels. In addition, resistance switching (RS) properties were also verified for use as an insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM). Comparison of scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements for the two different cosputtering powers indicated significant changes of the ITO surface. Transparency was also verified by an N&K analyzer measurement, with results indicating a constant in transparency induced by the lower power Gd doping, indicating potential for transparent applications. Furthermore, the mole fraction ratio defined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a Gd2O3 peak, a likely reason for the ITO thin film becoming less conductive. This ITO/Gd:ITO/TiN RRAM can exhibit stable and robust RS characteristics at a lower forming voltage. In addition, lower operating voltages, including both SET and RESET voltages, can be obtained. Reliability tests including endurance and retention were carried out to confirm its RS stability. The RS mechanism of this ITO/Gd:ITO/TiN device was also investigated with the current-voltage (I-V) fitting method. Moreover, temperature effects were also applied to verify the high-resistance state (HRS) mechanism. Finally, a conduction model was proposed to clarify the RS characteristics and confirm that the ITO/Gd:ITO/TiN device is appropriate for data storage.|
|期刊:||IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES|
|Appears in Collections:||Articles|