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dc.contributor.authorPao, Hsiao-Tienen_US
dc.contributor.authorTsai, Chung-Mingen_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-04-02T05:59:56Z-
dc.date.available2019-04-02T05:59:56Z-
dc.date.issued2011-01-01en_US
dc.identifier.issn0360-5442en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.09.041en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11536/150235-
dc.description.abstractThis paper addresses the impact of both economic growth and financial development on environmental degradation using a panel cointegration technique for the period between 1980 and 2007, except for Russia (1992-2007). In long-run equilibrium, CO2 emissions appear to be energy consumption elastic and FDI inelastic, and the results seem to support the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The causality results indicate that there exists strong bidirectional causality between emissions and FDI and unidirectional strong causality running from output to FDI. The evidence seems to support the pollution haven and both the halo and scale effects. Therefore, in attracting FDI, developing countries should strictly examine the qualifications for foreign investment or to promote environmental protection through the coordinated know-how and technological transfer with foreign companies to avoid environmental damage. Additionally, there exists strong output-emissions and output-energy consumption bidirectional causality, while there is unidirectional strong causality running from energy consumption to emissions. Overall, the method of managing both energy demand and FDI and increasing both investment in the energy supply and energy efficiency to reduce CO2 emissions and without compromising the country's competitiveness can be adopted by energy-dependent BRIC countries. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.subjectEnergy consumptionen_US
dc.subjectCO2 emissionsen_US
dc.subjectFDIen_US
dc.subjectPanel cointegrationen_US
dc.subjectBRICen_US
dc.titleMultivariate Granger causality between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, FDI (foreign direct investment) and GDP (gross domestic product): Evidence from a panel of BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, and China) countriesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.energy.2010.09.041en_US
dc.identifier.journalENERGYen_US
dc.citation.volume36en_US
dc.citation.spage685en_US
dc.citation.epage693en_US
dc.contributor.department管理科學系zh_TW
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Management Scienceen_US
dc.identifier.wosnumberWOS:000286781800071en_US
dc.citation.woscount204en_US
Appears in Collections:Articles