Title: Nitrogen Plasma-Assisted Codoped P-type (In, N):SnO(2) Ultra-Fine Thin Films and N-ZnO/p-In:SnO(2) Core-Shell Heterojunction Diodes Fabricated by an Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method
Authors: Chantarat, N.
Chen, Yu-Wei
Lin, Chin-Ching
Chiang, Mei-Ching
Chen, Yu-Chun
Chen, San-Yuan
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Issue Date: 24-Nov-2011
Abstract: In this study, tin oxide (SnO(2)) solution mixtures containing indium (In) of 0%, 3%, 7%, 15%, and 30% were used to fabricate In- and N-codoped SnO(2) films on glass at 400 degrees C using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method combined with thermal annealing at 600 degrees C and post nitrogen plasma treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of elemental In in the SnO(2) film primarily induces the evolution of crystalline phases from In-doped SnO(2) to Sn-doped In(2)O(3), depending on the doping concentration. Upon exposure to N plasma, the dark current dramatically increases in proportion to the treatment duration (5-40 min); the dark current can be enhanced for the 3% and 7%-doped samples by as much as 3 orders of magnitude compared to the untreated samples. Hall measurements confirmed that hole carriers could dominate the SnO(2) host matrix to promote p-type properties at a low In content (3% and 7%) with an increase in resistance compared to undoped samples. However, samples with higher In content (15% and 30%) showed the opposite trend, due to the formation of a secondary phase of n-type In(2)O(3). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to probe the incorporation and dissociation of chemical bonds between the doped In and N atoms in the SnO(2). Moreover, depth profile measurements showed a correlation between the elemental compositions and elemental distributions of the codoped SnO(2) film. Current-voltage (I-V) characterization revealed the improved behavior of heterojunction diodes consisting of a p-type (In, N)-doped SnO(2) thin film deposited on n-type ZnO nanorod arrays.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp206091s
ISSN: 1932-7447
DOI: 10.1021/jp206091s
Volume: 115
Issue: 46
Begin Page: 23113
End Page: 23119
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