Title: A 0.56 THz Phase-Locked Frequency Synthesizer in 65 nm CMOS Technology
Authors: Zhao, Yan
Chen, Zuow-Zun
Du, Yuan
Li, Yilei
Al Hadi, Richard
Virbila, Gabriel
Xu, Yinuo
Kim, Yanghyo
Tang, Adrian
Reck, Theodore J.
Chang, Mau-Chung Frank
National Chiao Tung University
Keywords: Bulk voltage tuning;frequency synthesizer;harmonic oscillator;injection locking;phase-locked loop (PLL);subsampling phase detector;terahertz;triple-push Colpitts oscillator (TPCO);triple-push oscillator (TPO)
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2016
Abstract: This paper presents the design and characterization of a 0.56 THz frequency synthesizer implemented in standard 65 nm CMOS technology. Its front end consists of triple-push Colpitts oscillators (TPCOs), followed by the first and second stage injection locking frequency dividers (ILFDs) and a divide-by-16 chain. TPCOs are used to triple their fundamental frequencies to 0.53-0.56 THz, while ILFDs and the subsequent divider chain are used to divide such frequencies to 2.7-2.9 GHz. Its back end consists of separate frequency and phase-locked loops with unique CMOS circuit designs to accomplish the desirable frequency/phase locking, including: 1) band-selection inductor switches; 2) simultaneous bulk voltage tuning over TPCOs and the first ILFD; and 3) a dual port injection architecture for the first ILFD. The resultant prototype realizes a 21 GHz frequency locking range with phase noise lower than -74 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, and consumes 174 mW dc power.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2016.2601614
ISSN: 0018-9200
DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2016.2601614
Volume: 51
Begin Page: 3005
End Page: 3019
Appears in Collections:Articles