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dc.contributor.authorChen, Jiunn-Yeuen_US
dc.contributor.authorYang, Wuuen_US
dc.contributor.authorHsu, Wei-Chungen_US
dc.contributor.authorShen, Bor-Yehen_US
dc.contributor.authorOu, Quan-Hueien_US
dc.description.abstractCode discovery has been a main challenge for static binary translation, especially when the source instruction set architecture has variable-length instructions, such as the x86 architectures. Due to embedded data such as PC (program counter)-relative data, jump tables, or paddings in the code section, a binary translator may be misled to translate data as instructions. For variable-length instructions, once a piece of data is mis-translated as instructions, decoding subsequent bytes could also go wrong. We are concerned with static binary translation for the very popular Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) architectures. Although ARM is considered a reduced instruction set computer architecture, it does allow the mix of 32-bit (ARM) instructions and 16-bit (Thumb) instructions in the same executables. In addition to different instruction lengths, the ARM and Thumb instructions are located at 4-byte or 2-byte aligned addresses, respectively. Furthermore, because ARM and Thumb instructions share the same encoding space, a 4-byte word could sometimes be decoded as one ARM instruction or two Thumb instructions. The correct decoding of this 4-byte word is actually determined at runtime by the least-significant bit of the program counter. For unstripped binaries, the mapping symbols can be used to identify ARM code regions and Thumb code regions. However, for stripped binaries, such mapping symbols are unavailable. We propose a novel solution to statically translate stripped ARM/Thumb mixed executables. Our solution is implemented in a static binary translator. The binary translator further generates multiple versions of translated code for the code regions whose types cannot be determined with our solution. One of the code versions is selected during runtime. The binary translator also includes a series of analyses that enable the removal of most useless code versions. Based on the experimental results on stripped ARM/Thumb mixed binaries in the SPEC2006 and Embedded Microprocessor Benchmark Consortium (EEMBC) benchmark suites, our static binary translator achieves impressive performance when migrating them to run on x86 machines and the space overhead is no more than 10%.en_US
dc.subjectStatic binary translationen_US
dc.subjectcode discovery problemen_US
dc.subjectreverse engineeringen_US
dc.titleOn Static Binary Translation of ARM/Thumb Mixed ISA Binariesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Computer Scienceen_US
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