The Construction of A Global Market-based Measure Scheme Addressing Emissions from International Aviation: Inspiration from EU Aviation ETS
|關鍵字:||國際航空;溫室氣體;排放交易機制;市場措施;域外效力;international aviation;greenhouse gas;emissions trading scheme;market-based measure;extraterritorial effect|
|摘要:||2009年2月生效之第2008/101號指令（歐盟航空碳排放交易機制），特色是將所有到達、離開歐盟境內機場的民用航班，其整個航程的二氧化碳排放納入歐盟碳排放交易機制（European Union Emissions Trading Scheme，EU ETS）之碳排放規制範圍，等同於將EU ETS之規制效力延伸至歐盟境外。歐盟並以國際間達成關於減少航空溫室氣體排放之全球措施的協議，作為其撤銷域外適用之條件。此項氣候變化政策是歐盟對於各國在國際規範上消極不作為的回應。然而歐盟航空碳排放交易機制受到國際間強烈的反彈。因國際間的反對聲浪，並考量到國際民用航空組織（ICAO）場域對「全球市場措施機制」（global market-based measure scheme）議題已有所進展，歐盟將第2008/101號指令之規制效力範圍限縮於歐洲經濟區（European Economic Area，EEA）領域內；但倘若2016年ICAO第39屆大會仍未形成關於全球市場措施之國際協議，則歐盟仍可能於2017年1月1日起，將規制效力範圍重新擴展至EEA領域外。
Entering into force in February 2009, the Directive 2008/101/EC aims at regulating carbon dioxide emissions from all flights arriving at or departing from an aerodrome situated in the territory of a Member State. The Directive involves the application of the EU ETS to emissions that are generated outside the geographical scope of the EU, rendering this extraterritorial application contingent to the fact that an international agreement on global measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation has been reached. This climate change policy is the response of the EU to the world-wide omission in the climate regime. However, the EU Aviation ETS had aroused fierce opposition among countries. Considering the wide opposition and the fact that substantive progress had been made by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on the issue of the global market-based measure (GMBM) scheme, the EU shrank the regulative scope of the Directive 2008/101/EC to the region of the European Economic Area (EEA). Nonetheless, if no agreement on a GMBM has been concluded during the session of the 39th ICAO Assembly in 2016, it is supposed that the EU Aviation ETS will regain its initial power to regulate emissions from flights taken place outside the EEA. Through analyzing, this thesis holds that the EU Aviation ETS may not be justified by asserting an extraterritorial effect in line with the international law. Moreover, the EU scheme may be inconsistent not only with both the obligations of the most-favoured nation (MFN) treatment and the national treatment incorporated in the GATS, but also the MFN treatment obligation in the GATT 1994 under the WTO law, and may hardly be justified under the General Exceptions. Therefore, by analyzing primary sources and research literature, the thesis will bring up proposals both on the design features of the GMBM and the proper legal instruments that could be used to establish the global scheme. The findings and proposals of this thesis may contribute to the progress on the issue of the GMBM within ICAO, helping construct a harmonized and stabilized global scheme that takes into account interests of most countries. By using a qualitative research method under which semi-structured in-depth interviews are conducted, the thesis explores the stances of both the Taiwan government and aircraft operators and their attitudes toward the EU Aviation ETS, the impacts of the EU scheme on them, and their responses. Through the interviews, a study is also conducted to identify appropriate roles the Taiwan government and aircraft operators may play during the process of the development of the global scheme, in order for them to adapt to potential future impacts.
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis|