A Case Study of a High School English Teacher’s Cognitions and Practices of Oral Corrective Feedback and Students’Perceptions
|關鍵字:||英語口說教學;口語修正回饋;教師認知;教學實務;學生感受;口語修正回饋類型;Speaking;Teacher cognition;Oral corrective feedback;teacher practice;types of oral CF;students’ perception|
|摘要:||近年來，口語修正回饋在第二語言口語課室中被深入及廣泛地討論，其中最廣為研究的議題包括口語修正回饋的類型、實施時機、施後效果等。然而，鮮少有研究以教師的教學認知的角度來探討該議題，也甚少有研究以中學為研究之場域。本研究以Borg (2006) 所提出的教師教學信念要素之架構 (Elements and Processes in Language Teacher Cognition) 為基礎，以個案研究方式探討一位高中英語教師對口語修正回饋之教學信念與實務及學生感受。研究資料經由課堂觀察、教師訪談、學生問卷調查及學生訪談彙整而成。該教師的口語修正回饋之教學實務根據Lyster 及Ranta (1997)所提出的分類方法分析而來，其教學信念及與教學實務之間的關係和影響因素則由訪談資料經由修改後的Borg (2006)所提架構分析彙整而來。
Research related to oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language classrooms has been widely examined in the past decades, including what types of oral CF should be provided (e.g. Al-Faki, 2013; Tomczyk, 2013), when oral CF should be initiated (e.g. Gumbaridze, 2013), or how effective oral CF is on learners’ performance (e.g. Lyster & Izquierdo, 2009). However, limited research has been conducted to examine oral CF practices from teachers’ cognitive perspectives. A case-study approach was adopted to investigate a high school English teacher’s cognitions and practices of oral CF based on Borg’s theoretical framework and to explore students’ perception of CF and their attitudes towards teacher’s oral CF practices in a speaking classroom. The data were gathered from weekly classroom observations, interviews with the teacher (formal, after-class informal and follow-up interviews), a questionnaire for the students, and interviews with volunteer students. Lyster and Ranta’s taxonomy (1997) were adapted to analyze the types of oral CF. Borg’s teacher cognition framework (2006) served as the analytical framework to retrieve the teacher’s cognition and her CF practice. The findings revealed that the teacher’s cognitions were influenced by her experiences of schooling, professional coursework, teaching experiences, and the contextual factors in her speaking course. Her teaching experiences accumulated throughout her teaching career projected considerable impact on her cognition and practice of oral CF. In addition, the contextual factors including parents’ concerns, school or government factors, student traits, and course context were also influential factors in the teacher’s cognitions and practices. In addition, the contextual factors might be the possible reasons causing the inconsistency between the teacher’s cognition and her practice of oral CF. The results also found that recast was used most in the speaking classroom and pronunciation problems were fixed most by the teacher due to the time-efficient nature of the two CF types that the teacher perceived. Finally, the results also revealed that the students generally perceived oral CF as an important tool for speaking learning but they revealed their dissatisfaction with their teacher’s oral CF practices. The present study suggested two pedagogical implications. First, English speaking teachers may consider implementing different CF approaches, such as peer review to avoid causing possible negative feelings from the students. Second, teacher training programs may consider offering related courses or teaching practicum for teachers to experiment their cognitions and carry out suitable teaching approaches based on knowledge acquired in the program.
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