EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS ON JOINT UNCERTAINTIES IN PSYCHO-PHYSICAL FACTORS OF CAR-FOLLOWING DRIVERS—QUANTUM OPTICAL FLOW PERSPECTIVE
|關鍵字:||跟車;感知相對速度;量子光流;反應時間;感知不確定性;Car following;perceived relative speed;quantum optical flow;reaction time;perception uncertainty|
Road drivers receive external light stimuli via eyes as an important judgment to spacing on the same lane. The majority of car-following theories put many emphases on physical spacing between the leading vehicle and the following vehicle. However, an important basis for visual perception rarely was concerned in the car-following theory. The purpose of the research is to analyze uncertainties in car-following behavior and environment, such as the driver's uncertainty of perception of perceived relative speed and uncertainty of reaction time that play a key role on the affect of the car-following behavior, and to construct a model considering those uncertainties from a viewpoint of quantum optical flow theory. Because the real traffic phenomena are complex, the study grounds on stimulate-response theory and proposes a quantum optical flow theory that presents a stochastic and potential dynamic model on an optical flow point of view. It is a stochastic and potential dynamic driver perception model to investigate the relationship between the uncertainty of perceived relative speed and that of reaction time during car following in clear and foggy weather conditions. Specifically, the proposed model hypothesizes that driver perceived speed and reaction times are time-varying and uncertain, and correlate in a trade-off relationship mimicking the form of Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. This study conducts qualitative analysis followed by a two-stage experiment rooted in quantum optical flow theory using data collected from a driver simulator. Then this study tests the relevant between standard deviation of perceived relative speed and that of reaction time of following vehicle driver under a clear weather condition. The results illustrate that under the driver's perception of the uncertainty in the driver’s behavior in the car following there is a trade-off relationship between the standard deviations of perceived relative speed time and the standard deviations of reaction time. That is, if the standard deviation of the perceived relative speed increases, then the standard deviation of reaction time decreases. On the contrary condition, it is similar to the trade-off relationship. Then this model was expanded to analysis those driving uncertainties in a foggy weather condition. In the application, some of the reaction time data has been applied to an automatic driving vehicle following control logic in a mixed lane where automatic and manual driven vehicles mix near the event area and adjacent to automated highway system. This study could not only help to describe in the driver's perception of uncertainty for car phenomenon, but also contribute to the improvement of road safety. Another can also provide the enhancement of current road safety in the basic application of human factors relating to driving and behavior even as the new development of car following theory.