Examining optimal experiences of students in system engineering courses through day reconstruction method and analyzing their project creative performance
|關鍵字:||系統工程課程;創意產品評量;一日經驗重建法;課程經驗;專題創意表現;system engineering course;creative product assessment;Day Reconstruction Method (DRM);subjective experiences in courses;creativity in project|
|摘要:||本研究目的是以實徵資料檢視在特定領域並且需要高專業知識層級的系統工程課程中，大專生展現專題創意作品表現的過程實況、課程經驗和特定領域學習的特性，分析了解大學生的特定領域創造力受哪些遠端與近端因素影響，以顯示個人變項和脈絡變項如何影響創意表現的歷程。根據Ford (1996)個體創意行為理論(A theory of Creative Individual Action)和大學生的學習情境設置研究架構，「課程最佳經驗」和「趨向成就目標」為遠端變項(distal factors)，亦為創意表現的充分條件。「創意自我效能」與「領域知識」為近端變項(proximal factors)，則為創意表現的必要條件和模型中的中介變項 (Amabile, 1983; Ford, 1996)。本研究只採用修讀系統工程課程學生學習全程的資料，遠端、近端變項和創意表現(成果變項)是在系統工程課程多波時間點中發生，並以產品評定法來鑑定學生在動態系統課程專題成品的創意成績，而不是以領域廣泛的標準化創造力測驗施測。本研究為極少數將一日經驗重建法實施於大專生，並且結合教育心理和工程教學，跨領域合作探討影響學生創意表現的長期因子。此外，本研究針對專業領域創意(Pro-C，Cropley & Kaufman, 2012)教學歷程進行深度分析。
本研究對象為48位修習系統工程課程的電機系大專生，以一日經驗重建法 (Day Reconstruction Method, DRM) 收集學生一整學期跨五波課堂時間的經驗感受，五個全天總共收集到2885個事件，並分析其事件數量、互動對象、學習活動和課程經驗來重現學生在專業課程中的學習脈絡和專業課程的特性。此外，以橫斷性問卷測量模式中其他變項的資料，和設計一套針對系統工程領域大專生專題作品的創意產品評量，評定學生的創意作品表現。以偏最小平方法(Partial Least Squares, PLS)進行模式路徑係數估計與中介效果檢定，最後則依作品創意特質挑選特殊個案和收集教學者反饋，分析課程設計、學生的學習經驗、創意表現和團隊組合。研究結果如下：
(一) 經卡方分析顯示，學生回報在系統工程課程的課後事件數、與同學互動的事件數和執行作業和實驗的事件數顯著多於其他課程(p < 0.001)。經獨立樣本t檢定顯示學生在負荷量大的系統工程的享受程度相近於其他課程事件與工作事件。
(三) 針對系統工程領域專題作品形成的創意產品評量，量表內部一致性(Cronbach's α = 0.869)和評分者間信度佳(Kendall’s W = 0.384)。評量結果顯示專業領域中的創意作品表現，專業邏輯為產生原創性的必要條件。
本研究實施的四門系統工程課程均設計為總整課程(cape stone course)，目標為整合學生的專業基本知識與技能，以專題導向學習(prject-based learning)、結合翻轉教室(flipped classroom)等教學策略實施，因此研究結果的推論範圍侷限於工程領域、課程設計理念相似的課堂，而且要注意是推論範圍僅及於與本研究能力相仿的學生群，最後研究者提出討論，希望進一步提供教學者建議和未來的研究方向。|
Previously very few studies have conducted to examine creativity performance and its realted impact fators in a professional domain, such as System Engineering. Even less has been studied using longitudinal method to reveal multiple time points in the class across a semester. The purpose of this study was to examine the process and subjective experiences when college students developed their creative products and investigated some characteristics that might impact domain specific creativity in high tech domain of System Engineering courses. This study set the research framework based on Ford’s theory of creative individual action model (1996) and college student learning circumstances. In the theretical model, “optimal experiences” and “approached achievement goals” are are viewed as the distal factors or sufficient conditions for domain specific creativity. “Creative self-efficacy” and “domain knowledge” are two proximal factors (necessary conditions) and the mediators in the model.The data of this research is only collected from students who attended system engineering courses through their learning process in these courses. Distal factors, proximal factors and creativity performance (outcome variable) are collected in five waves (time points) of System Engineering courses. Besides, creativity levels of students’ products were evaluated by product assessment. This study is among pioneers in Taiwan to conduct Day Resconstruction Method (DRM) on college students and built a cross-disciplinary team between educational psychologist and System Engineering to explore impact factors of student’s creativity. Moreover, this study focused on Pro-C (Cropley & Kaufman, 2012) to analyze specialized domain creativity. The participants were 48 engineering college students who attended System Engineering courses. Learning experiences data were collected by Day Resconstruction Method (DRM) and students provided 2885 episodes in total. The numbers of activities, classroom companions and learning acitivity types were compared among the target courses, other courses, campus life activities and part time work. Cross-section investigations were conducted to collect data of distal and proximal variables except learning experiences and product assessment was adopted to identify students’ product creativity. Then Partial Least Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the path coefficients of the mediation models and direct and indirect effects. At last, the author chose some products to do case study and the feedback from a teacher was collected to analyze the teaching plan, students’ learning experiences, creative performance and group learning. The major findings of the research were summarized as in below. 1. The chi-square tests show that in system engineering courses, the frequiences of after-class activities, interaction with peers and doing homework and experiements were significantly higher than the expected value. The results in other courses are opposite. And the t-test indicated that students’ enjoyment (emotional experience) in System Engineering courses was similarly to that in other couses and works. 2. From the five-wave data collected in system engineering courses, it was found that sudents’ experiences experiments were stably positive or went more positive in activities with higher automomy. Compared with men, women’s experiences were rising up toward more positive; compared with students majored in System Engineering, students from other departments reported to have poor learning experiences. 3. Scores of creative product assessment showed acceptable inter-rater reliability. The result of assessment indicated that a professional product would be identified as high creativity only when it shows high qualities of (1) professional logical thinking and (2) originality. 4. Regarding the examination of two mediation models, results of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling analysis showed that the hypothetical models were rejected. There were three possible exaplantions : ① The project assigned might not allow large scale of professional creativity. ② The creative projects of four courses were not in adequate level of coherence. ③ The relation between students’ traits and creativity were truely unexpected. 5. From cases analysis and the teacher’s feedback, it was found that students’ creative self-efficacy were rather low. It might be because that they lack of creative experiences in the classroom or because they were “modest” in evaluating themselves. In addition, it was very likely that the dynamic of group cooperation interacted with individual characteristics to influence the preformanc of creativity. Four system engineering courses in this study were designed as the cape stone course. The course aimed toward project-based learning and used the flipped classroom strategy to develop student’s basic professional knowledge and skills. Therefore, the generalization of the results is restricted in Engineering course and within stundent groups of similar the educational level. According to above results, several suggestions were given for teachers and future researchers.