Title: 線上學習者的成就目標以及其對遊戲化線上學習平台中的遊戲因子的態度
Online learners’ achievement goal settings and their preference for game-design elements in a gamified learning platform
Authors: 簡祥育
Chien, Hsiang-Yu
Chen, CHao-Hsiu
Keywords: 成就目標;遊戲化;線上學習平台;八角遊戲架構;PaGamO;Achievement goal;Gamification;Online learning platform;Octaylsis;PaGamO
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 摘要 近年來,線上學習場域變得越來越熱門,如大規模線上開放課程MOOC或翻轉教室。然而學生在線上學習情境中的流失率相當高。因此要如何激勵學生更投入在線上學習之中的相關研究變得約來越重要。在線上學習環境中應用遊戲化這個概念,亦所謂應用遊戲設計的元素去刺激人類行為,能有減緩學生流失的情況。遊戲化教育相關的研究透過將特定的元素如點數、徽章、排行榜融入於設計之中,探討遊戲元素對於學習成效的提升。 本研究應用旨在探討遊戲元素與學生學習成就目標之間的關聯性。成就目標是一個有明確架構、定義的動機理論,各目標設定反應出人的動機與相對應的行為。作者將青少年學生依據其設定的成就目標進行分組。另外,為了更完備的瞭解學生對於遊戲設計元素的偏好,本研究採用八角化遊戲化框架去驗證遊戲設計元素以及不同成就目標組別對於不同遊戲因子的偏好程度。 本研究針對在線上學習平台PaGamO上的青少年進行調查;有三百八十四位學生提供有效問卷。因素分析的結果顯示,成就目標的分類架構符合理論,但遊戲因子並沒有符合原本八角的架構。探索性因素分析的結果顯示,學生只感受到三類的遊戲因子,使命感、胡蘿蔔、棍子。此外,根據學生目標設定的分數分群,分出三類的學生,低動機組、中庸組、高動機組。當中,高動機組學生對於平台中遊戲因子的偏好都顯著的高於另外兩組。而中庸組對於遊戲因子的偏好也高於低動機組。因此,在PaGamO中的遊戲因子能吸引或鼓勵學習動機高的學生族群。
Abstract How to motivate students engaging in an online learning environment is getting more and more important since various applications of online learning such as Massive Open Online courses and flipped classrooms have become common and popular. Yet, the issue of high dropout rates in these online learning environments has been raised by researchers and educators. Employing the concept of gamification that uses game-design elements to encourage human behavior in online learning environments could alleviate such phenomenon. The research on gamification in education mainly applies certain game-design elements such as points, badges, and leaderboards to instructional design to find how these elements improve students’ learning performance. This study investigates the relationship between game-design elements and students’ achievement goals. The achievement goal framework is a well-defined motivation theory with a 3 x 2 structure, and it illustrates students’ learning goal settings and the corresponding learning behaviors. The author used this motivation structure as clustering parameters to differentiate the achievement goal settings of teenage students. To get a comprehensive understanding about students’ preference for game-design elements, the author employed the Octalysis framework to test the structure of game-design elements as well as to verify how students of different goal-setting groups show different preferences for the game-design elements. This study used the survey method to understand teenage students’ achievement goal setting and preference for game-design elements of an online platform called the PaGamO. Totally 384 students provided valid responses. The results of factorial/dimensional structures and internal consistencies support the validity of the 3 x 2 achievement goal framework but disprove the octagon structure (eight game-design elements) of the Octalysis framework. The EFA result indicates that the students only perceived three game factors which were named Meaning, Carrot, and Stick. Also, clustering the teenage students according to their achievement goal-setting scores resulted in three types of motivation groups (low motivation, moderate, high motivation). Finally, the high motivation group showed significant higher preference for the game factors than the other two groups, and the moderate motivation group show higher preference than the low motivation group. Thus, these game elements in the PaGamO can attract or encourage students with high learning motivation.
URI: http://etd.lib.nctu.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT070359634
Appears in Collections:Thesis