標題: 營建工程安全衛生認知與實際執行之探討
A Study of Safety and Health Cognitions and Practical Implementations of Construction Engineering
作者: 蔡宗翰
黃世昌
Tsai, Tzung-Han
Huang, Shyh-Chang
土木工程系所
關鍵字: 工作習慣;不安全行為;認知;安全衛生政策;Work Habits;Unsafe Behavior;Awareness;Policies of Health and Safety
公開日期: 2017
摘要:   對於營造建設產業而言,工程之工序時程安排、物料以及工法之選擇、機具與人員之調配運用、資金流管理等…無一不是每個建設公司、工程單位所注重的;然而對於身處「第一線」工程施作現場的人員,不論是工地主任、技師與領班,甚至是擔任基礎作業的師傅與勞工們,最為切身相關者不外乎是工地之環境優劣、好壞。   舉凡工地之安全、便利性、清潔衛生條件等,每一項皆影響了施工人員之工作品質;更甚者,也對工程本身之施作精確度、勞工之工作效率有一定程度的影響;而在另一方面,一般普羅大眾在既有的印象,以及近年來之工安事故報導中普遍認為:我國現行工程施作之精確、完整程度,劣於歐美諸國以及日本等先進國家,其中又以「負責之態度、習慣」之差距為造成意外之主要原因。本研究旨在透過分析當前國內常見工地勞工安全衛生之相關管理內容,並從中試著探索「工作習慣」(不安全行為)對於工地安全衛生之可能影響,以及可行的改善方案。   本研究係以宜蘭縣、基隆市、台北市、新北市、桃園市、新竹縣、新竹市、苗栗縣等地,以隨機抽樣選取工地進行調查,問卷採定時定點發放,調查期間為2016年10月至2016年12月,有效回收樣本共273份。問卷題目依參考文獻之內容逐題設計,並針對高風險工種增設詳細問題。內容主要為調查勞工對於工作中危險之「認知程度」,以及勞工所處之各個工地,管理者對於防範上述危險發生之確實程度「實際情形」。   根據分析結果可知,全體人員總體平均為76.56分,尚低於與全部勾選「同意」情況相當之80分,顯見勞工自身雖已有一定程度之危險認知或認同,但仍具有改進之空間。其次,根據安全認知問卷則可得知,勞工認為工地管理者推行之安全衛生政策及措施,尚未達到勞工期許,其中又以與勞工切身相關之衛生問題為首,其次為安全設備或安全措施之執行,第三為消防設備與逃生,皆有較大之落差等待改善。本研究同時顯示管理者傾向將較多之資源挹注於加強安全措施,而衛生方面則較為不受重視。故管理者在資源條件許可之下,可試圖投資於衛生環境之改善,期能維持勞動者之健康,並提升勞動者之士氣及效率。
  In construction industry, it is concerned for every building enterprise to pay heed to all the details, which include procedure and schedule arrangement, materials and methods selection, equipment and workers deployment, funds management, and so on. However, the most important of all for those who are in the construction site are the environmental protection and occupational safety.   Each of the construction safety, convenience, hygiene has an influence on the work efficiency and quality, even on the accuracy of construction. On the other hand, according to the recent reports of construction accidents, it showed that the construction exactitude and complement of Taiwan are worse than that of developed countries, such as America, Germany and Japan. Among these factors, the difference of “responsible attitude and work habits” is the main reason to cause incidental damages.   In this study, we analysis presently domestic common management of environmental protection and occupational safety, and study the possible impacts on construction safety due to work habits (unsafe behavior). At final, we try to find out an appropriate method to improve the present situation, in order to avoid the same accident from our surroundings.   This study is based on the construction sites in Yilan County, Keelung City, Taipei City, New Taipei City, Taoyaun City, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County and Miaoli City, Taiwan (R.O.C.). The questionnaires are randomly sent at different sites from October 2016 to December 2016, and 273 effective samples are received. According to the reference, the questionnaires are designed to survey the awareness of work risk of workers, and the actual conditions that managers take action on avoiding the above risk. Moveover, we design detailed questions with regard to high-risk-trades.   In accordance with the analysis results, the average grade is 76.56, which is lower than 80 points of the “agree” condition. That is to say, although workers are aware of work risk to a certain extent, there is still having some room for improvement. Futhermore, workers consider that the policies and measures of health and safety, which managers adopt, do not satisfy the expectation of workers. The health problems of immediate concern for workers, the safety equipment and the adoption of safety measures and the fire equipment and escape are the first three serious problems that exist larger difference to be improved.   This research reveals that managers tend to inject more resources into the enhancement of safety measures than those into the health problems. As a result, managers can attempt to invest in the improvement of health condition as far as resources allow, in order to maintain workers’ health and promote workers’ morale and efficiency.
URI: http://etd.lib.nctu.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT070351238
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/140581
Appears in Collections:Thesis