Cultural Exhibition and Children learning：The Case study of Hakka Culture Park
|關鍵字:||客家文化;兒童;兒童認知理論;博物館;Hakka culture;Children;Children's cognitive theory;Museum|
|摘要:||關於文化傳遞方式的討論，客家研究以博物館為載體的研究議題討論的不多，其中以兒童為展示對象的議題更是少見。兒童對文化的認知學習與文化的延續或傳承有其重要性，客家文化發展中心所轄的南北兩座國家級的客家文化園區也都有為兒童設置展區。文化園區作為一個廣義的博物館，不僅是一種休閒空間更是承擔著文化傳播責任的載體。本文希望透過對西方兒童博物館和台灣博物館兒童展區如何對兒童展示，並針對南北兩座文化園區的考察，來思考如何對兒童展演台灣客家文化。首先發現西方兒童博物館發展和各國的兒童觀、當時兒童認知理論、社會的變革有相當程度的關係，其中以Jean Piaget兒童認知理論為展示基礎讓波士頓兒童博物館的典範，而對於文化認知的展示方式則運用Lev S. Vygotsky的社會文化論，同樣重視環境學習的Reggio Emilia的環境互動取徑則融合前兩者以「方案」為主，將環境融入博物館展示中。雖然東西方對博物館認知的差異與兒童觀的不同，但是和認知理論結合的國立美術館兒童遊戲室也有相當吸引人的展示。以這樣的思考邏輯為基礎來觀察南北客家文化園區，發現苗栗的展示不僅沒有和客家研究結合，而且沒有依兒童認知理論設計，六堆的展示內容和客家研究相關性高，也試著考慮兒童認知方式，只是尚有改進空間。兩座園區均呈現台灣的獨特性，但內容選取以經濟為優先以致於啟發兒童的工藝覺知多於文化覺知，展示物品趣味性凌駕真實性難以誘發情意。
When it comes to how is Hakka culture in Taiwan being transmitted, a cultural museum is rarely deemed or researched as a medium, let alone those target at children as key audience. Considering the significance of children's cognitive learning and cultural continuity in cultural heritage, the two Hakka Cultural Parks, in northern and southern Taiwan respectively, which are under the jurisdiction of Hakka Cultural Development Center both have set up an exhibition area for children. That being said, Cultural Park as a museum in general, not only is for leisure but for cultural transmission as a medium. This essay aims to find out the best approaches to exhibit Hakka culture to children in Taiwan by contrast and comparison on the children exhibition area in the museums in western countries and current practices in the two museums in Taiwan. Through the research, the author found that in western world, the development of the children's perception of the world, the contemporary cognitive theory, social changes show a considerable positive relations to the development of the museums of the country. Children's Cognitive Theory by Jean Piaget showcased the Boston Children's Museum model; While the cultural knowledge of the display is the use of Lev S. Vygotsky's social and cultural theory: Environment Interaction Approach by Reggio Emilia integrated the two programs by Piaget and Vygotsky but emphasized on environmental learning. Although the author discovered the museums in Taiwan are different from western ones because of East-West differences in the perception of the museum and children's difference, the National Museum of Children applies the cognitive theory of the National Museum in children's play room also has an interesting exhibition. Based on the same evaluation, the author concludes that the Hakka culture park in Miaoli, Taiwan doesn’t apply a persuasive study in building the Children’s exhibition room nor considering children's cognitive theory. The display of the Liudui though is highly related to Hakka studies and trying to apply with Cognitive methods, the author still finds rooms for improvement. In conclusion, the two Cultural parks in Taiwan are built more from the profit optimization than cultural transmition responsibilities from the exhibition content they choose is difficult to arouse Children’s learning initiatives. Last, the author proposes three points of reflection and four suggestions as a call to action for improvements.
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis|