The investigation of EFL college students’ strategy uses in multiple choice questions, summary, and opinion listening tests
|Keywords:||聽力策略;聽力測驗;開放式聽力測驗;封閉式聽力測驗;Listening Comprehension Strategy;Listening Test;Open-ended Listening Assessment;Closed-ended Listening Assessment|
研究結果發現：第一、全體受試者在敘說個人意見題型中所使用的認知策略比在選擇題中使用的還多。高程度受試者在摘要題中所使用的全部聽力策略比在選擇題中使用的還多。中程度受試者在敘說個人意見題型中所使用的全部聽力策略比在選擇題中使用的還多。中程度受試者在敘說個人意見題型中所使用的認知策略比在選擇題中使用的還多。最後，低程度受試者在三個題型中所使用的聽力題型皆無顯著差異。第二、高中低程度受試者在三個題型中皆最頻繁地使用後設認知策略。其中advanced organization和comprehension monitoring更是所有學習者在三個題型中都有使用到的後設認知策略。第三、越高程度的學習者越能夠在不同題型之間有意識地知道該選擇什麼聽力策略。反之，越低程度的學習者較沒有辦法察覺題型間的差別，進而改變聽力策略的選擇。最後，受試者普遍認為做摘要這題型最能夠幫助長遠的聽力能力提升。
Listening has gradually gained its importance in the field of language learning. Plenty of researchers thus start to investigate what kind of listening strategies will enhance learners’ listening abilities. However, the relationship between listening test types and learners’ strategy uses is still under development. Most of the previous research investigated learners’ listening strategy uses in closed-ended test types, such as multiple choice questions and true or false questions. Few studies examined learners’ strategy uses in open-ended test questions. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring first whether learners use different listening strategies when they answer open-ended and closed-ended questions as revealed through both questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Second, the research investigated learners’ perceptions toward test types. Forty EFL college and graduate students in northern Taiwan participated in the study. The instruments included a TOEIC test, a listening strategy questionnaire, and three types of listening tests, including multiple choice questions, summary, and opinion. After participants listened to CNN student news, they responded to the above three test types, completed the listening strategy questionnaires, and then finally received semi-structured interviews. The results showed that overall learners used more cognitive strategies in the opinion test than in multiple choice questions. More specifically, high-level learners used more strategies in summary test than in multiple choice questions. Middle-level learners used more strategies in opinion test than in multiple choice questions. Middle-level learners also used more cognitive strategies in opinion test than in multiple choice questions. As for low-level learners, there were not significant differences in their strategy uses among three test types. Secondly, metacognitive strategies were used the most frequently across all level of learners in three test types. Among seven metacognitive strategies, advanced organization and comprehension monitoring were used the most by learners. Third, the more advanced learners could consciously change the strategy choices according to different test types while the less advanced learners were less likely to be aware of the test type differences and chose listening strategies accordingly. Finally, learners reported that they regarded making summary was the test type that could assist their listening in a long run. In conclusion, learners’ proficiency levels have greatly influenced on their listening strategy choices. In terms of teaching, teachers can both adopt closed-ended and open-ended listening assessments to enable students have access to different kinds of listening strategies. As for research, more studies can be done to explore open-ended listening materials in order to design listening assessments that can enhance learners’ listening competence.
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