The Cost and Benefit Evaluation of Beijing Mine Ecological Rehabilitation
|關鍵字:||礦山復育工程;綜合效益;經濟效益;生態效益;評估;Mine Ecological Rehabilitation;Comprehensive benefits;Economic benefits;Ecologic benefits;Evaluation|
|摘要:||礦業的開採使得地貌景觀被破壞并誘發各種地質與環境危害，這些問題導 致了當地的生態環境惡化，亟待復育。生態復育工程落實困難的一個重要原因 在於復育工程的效益難以精確評估。礦山復育工程的效益包括其經濟效益、社 會效益和生態效益。傳統的成本效益評估方法以經濟效益為中心，很少考慮生 態效益與價值。因此如何通過量化生態效益，改善傳統的成本效益評估方法， 以適用於礦山復育工程的評估，是本文的核心議題。 本文從礦山復育工程的經濟效益和生態效益著手，借鑒生態學的研究成果 ——生態服務定價研究，將生態服務價值視為工程的生態效益產出，並對生態 效益的各個分量建立了估算方法和評估指標，建立一個相對系統的評估方法。 通過這個方法，使礦山復育工程的效益得到更加精確的評估，為礦山復育工程 的投資決策提供支持。 本文對 2015 年北京市廢棄礦山復育計劃的成本效益進行評估，該計劃包括 9 個子工程，總投資 4.99 億元，評估週期為 30 年，計算得到的綜合效益為 26.09 億元，其中生態效益占總效益 85%。|
Mining will make the geomorphologic landscapes damaged, and induce a variety of geological and environmental hazards. These problems lead to the deterioration of the local ecological environments，and damaged geomorphologic landscapes and ecological environments should be rehabilitated quickly. One of the important reasons for the difficulties in the implementation of ecological rehabilitation projects is that the benefits of rehabilitation projects are difficult to be evaluated accurately. The benefits of mine rehabilitation project include its economic benefits, social benefits and ecological benefits. In evaluating cost benefits, the traditional methods always focus on economic benefits, and seldom consider the ecological benefits and value. Therefore, it is the core issue in the paper that how to improve the traditional cost-benefit evaluation methods by quantifying the ecological benefits, in order to make the traditional methods suitable for the evaluation of the mine rehabilitation projects. In this paper, based on the research results on ecology——researches on ecological service pricing, the author begins with the economic benefits and ecological benefits of the mine rehabilitation project. The author regards the ecological service value as the outputs of the project in the ecological benefits, and establishes the estimation methods and evaluation indexes for each component of the ecological benefits, In this paper, the author also establishes an evaluation method of relative system.。Through the method, the efficiencies of the mine rehabilitation projects can be evaluated more accurately and finally provide support for the investment decisions of the mine rehabilitation project The 2015 rehabilitation plan on abandoned Mines in Beijing includes 9 sub-projects. In this paper, the author makes an evaluation and research on the cost benefits of the 2015 rehabilitation plan. The total investment in the rehabilitation project is 499 million Yuan (RMB). The evaluation period for the project is 30 years. It is expected that the comprehensive benefits will be 2609 million Yuan (RMB)， among them, the ecological benefits account for 85% of the total benefits.
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