Title: InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on a Micro/Nanoscale Hybrid Patterned Sapphire Substrate
Authors: Ke, Wen-Cheng
Lee, Fang-Wei
Chiang, Chih-Yung
Liang, Zhong-Yi
Chen, Wei-Kuo
Seong, Tae-Yeon
Department of Electrophysics
Keywords: light-emitting diode;dislocation;nanopatterns;Raman;electroluminescence;diffuse reflection;efficiency droop
Issue Date: 21-Dec-2016
Abstract: A hybrid patterned sapphire substrate (hybrid-PSS) was prepared using an anodic aluminum oxide etching mask to transfer nanopatterns onto a conventional patterned sapphire substrate with microscale patterns (bare-PSS). The threading dislocation (TD) suppression of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on a hybrid-PSS (HP-LED) exhibits a smaller reverse leakage current compared with that of LEDs grown on a bare-PSS (BP-LED). The strain-free GaN buffer layer and fully strained InGaN active layer were evidenced by cross-sectional Raman spectra and reciprocal space mapping of the X-ray diffraction intensity for both samples. The calculated piezoelectric fields for both samples are close, implying that the quantum-confined Stark effect was not a dominant mechanism influencing the electroluminescence (EL) peak wavelength under a high injection current. The bandgap shrinkage effect of the InGaN well layer was considered to explain the large red-shifted EL peak wavelength under high injection currents. The estimated LED chip temperatures rise from room temperature to 150 degrees C and 75 degrees C for BP-LED and HP-LED, respectively, at a 600-mA injection current. This smaller temperature rise of the LED chip is attributed to the increased contact area between the sapphire and the LED structural layer because of the embedded nanopattern. Although the chip generates more heat at high injection currents, the accumulated heat can be removed to outside the chip effectively. The high diffuse reflection (DR) rate of hybrid-PSS increases the escape probability of photons, resulting in an increase in the viewing angle of the LEDs from 130 degrees to 145 degrees. The efficiency droop was reduced from 46% to 35%, effects which can be attributed to the elimination of TDs and strain relaxation by embedded nanopatterns. In addition, the light output power of HP-LED at 360-mA injection currents exhibits a similar to 22.3% enhancement, demonstrating that hybrid-PSSs are beneficial to apply in high-power LEDs.
URI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b10226
ISSN: 1944-8244
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b10226
Volume: 8
Issue: 50
Begin Page: 34520
End Page: 34529
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