The influence of tonal and segmental differences on perception: a case from Sixian Hakka to Hailu Hakka
|關鍵字:||方言差;音段差異;聲調差異;四縣腔;海陸腔;形式促發;詞彙判斷作業;dialectal difference;segmental difference;tonal difference;Sixian Hakka;Hailu Hakka;form priming;lexical decision task|
|摘要:||先前的研究指出客語四縣腔與海陸腔最大的差異在於聲調系統上的不同 (Chung, 2006; Hsu, 2007)，而聲調系統的差別便是造成此兩方溝通困難的主因 (Chung, 2007)。然而，音段的差異也存在於兩方言之中 (Huang, 2005; Chung, 2006; Lyu, 2007)。
此篇研究以形式促發(form-priming)的實驗原理並搭配詞彙判斷作業(lexical decision task)來探討海陸腔使用者對此兩種方言差的感知情況。結果顯示受試者對於由海陸腔聲調轉換成四縣腔對應聲調的詞彙，反應時間較兩詞彙相同時的反應時間來得長、較聲調與音段皆不同的詞彙短 (兩者皆達顯著差異)，有促發效應 (priming effect)，顯示與四縣腔在聲調上的方言差，會干擾海陸腔使用者對詞彙意義的理解。而比較音段差異的詞彙與兩詞彙相同時、聲調與音段皆不同時的反應時間，僅有一者顯示顯著差異，即音段的方言差不干擾理解詞彙意義。
進一步檢視聲母(子音)與韻母(母音)的方言差異，結果僅顯示聲母之差異有促發效應，意即韻母的差異如同聲調，亦會干擾海陸腔使用者理解四縣腔的詞彙意義，但聲母的差異並不影響，而此現象可歸因於聲母的高語音相似度 (phonetical similarity; Connine et al., 1993)。除此因素，受試者的年齡與語言背景皆造成實驗有不同的結果。
Previous studies have shown that the main difference between Sixian Hakka and Hailu Hakka lies in the tonal system (Chung, 2006; Hsu, 2007) and that these tonal differences can cause communication difficulties between speakers of the two dialects (Chung, 2007). However, segmental differences are also found between Sixian and Hailu (Huang, 2005; Chung, 2006; Lyu, 2007). In this study, two form-priming experiments are used investigate how changes in segmental and tonal makeup influence Hailu Hakka native speakers’ perception. Findings from these experiments showed that participants take longer to respond to a target stimulus when tonal information is altered, suggesting that tonal differences interfere with Hailu Hakka speakers’ lexical processing. Segmental differences also increased the time taken for word recognition; however, the slow-down in response time was not nearly as significant as the one elicited by tonal differences, suggesting that segmental differences are easier to process for Hailu Hakka speakers than tonal differences. Further comparisons between Sixian–Hailu segmental differences in consonantal onsets versus vowel nuclei showed that only differences in consonantal onsets yield significant facilitation in lexical decision-making, while vocalic differences do not, suggesting that vowel differences are a main cause for lexical processing difficulty between the two dialects. These findings may be attributed to phonetic similarity (Connine et al., 1993). The results also showed an effect of age and language background. Taken together, the results of this thesis show that the extent to which (tonal and segmental) differences between dialects interfere with processing may depend on external factors, such as phonetic similarity, language proficiency and age.
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis|