A Two-Stage Evaluation of Operation Efficiency of Major Airports in East Asia
|關鍵字:||機場;資料包絡分析;營運績效評估;Airports;Operational performance evaluation;Data envelopment analysis|
|摘要:||2014年全球旅客量排名前150的機場中，亞太地區機場旅客量佔比近三分之一，是各地區中最高者，在成長率前十名的機場中，東亞地區亦佔有一半席位，是航空產業發展的重要地區。本研究針對東亞地區主要機場，採用兩階段資料包絡分析，拆解機場的生產過程，建構經營效率的評估。有別於典型應用於機場經營效率的兩階段資料包絡分析，第一階段使用機場生產要素為投入變數及提供旅客之服務為產出變數，第二階段使用提供旅客之服務為投入、旅客使用服務程度為產出，本研究嘗試以Saraswati 和 Hanaoka (2014) 的生產過程拆解建構效率評估模式，以機場生產要素為投入變數，航空公司使用程度為中間產品，旅客使用服務程度為產出變數的兩階段DEA模型，在中間產品部分採用航空公司家數、航線數、起降次數等與航空公司相關因素，解釋航空公司選擇機場、開設航線及來往架次等因素對於機場發展的重要性。另輔以Mann-Whitney檢定，本研究亦關注地理區位、國家經濟發展及機場規模等變數對於機場營運效率的影響。研究結果發現，機場與航空公司的關係對整體營運績效有相當大的影響，具體地說，機場在第一階段的績效分數，與兩階段模型下的整體績效分數呈現高度正相關。此外，位於東北亞的機場，績效表現顯著優於其他地區，小機場的績效表現顯著優於大機場，而位於經濟成長率較低國家的機場在績效表現上則顯著優於經濟成長率較高者。|
According to 2014 statistics, Asia-Pacific airports accounted for r nearly one-third among 150 global leading airports in passenger traffic, which is the highest of all regions. Among the top ten airports in growth rate, East Asia airports also accounted for half the seats. The region is reckoned a significant part in development of the global aviation industry. Focusing on 23 main airports in East Asia, this study applies two-stage data envelopment analysis, dividing the production process into two sub-processes, to measure the airports’ operation efficiency. Typically, a two-stage data envelopment analysis applied in airport operation efficiency uses airports’ factor of production as input variables, services offered as intermediate products, level of services utilized by passengers as output factors. This study, otherwise, attempts to conduct a model based on Saraswati and Hanaoka’s (2014) production process decomposition, using airports’ factor of production as inputs, level of services utilized by airlines as intermediates, level of services utilized by passengers as outputs. For intermediate products, airlines-related factors in airports, such as the number of airlines, number of routes, and annual aircraft movement, are adopted to explain how airlines’ decision of selecting airports is factored into an airport’s development. Supplemented by Mann-Whitney test, this study meanwhile concerns how such external variables as geographic characteristic, national economic growth and airport size account for airports’ development. The empirical results show that the relation between airports and airlines has a great impact on airports’ overall performance under proposed two-stage DEA model, specifically, the performance in the first stage, namely, the airports’ ability to create airlines services is found to have highly positive correlation with the overall two-stage efficiency. Besides, there are differences in performance between airports in North-East Asian and ones in other region and between large and small airports, the difference between airports in countries with high economic growth rate and those with lower rate is also significant.
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis|