Effect of a Teaching Program For Inducing Domain-Specific Creativity in Civic Education Class of Junior High School
Lin,Sunny S. J.
|關鍵字:||公民科創造力;領域特定創造力;任務設計;動機;Creativity in Civic Education;domain specific creativity;design task;motivation|
研究方法採實驗法設計，針對新竹市某國中165位一年級學生，分為實驗組及控制組。實驗組接受四節課的公民科融入創造力教學方案，教學包含論述創造力的認知概念，並採用循序漸進(small progress principle, Amabile & Kramer, 2011)、做中學(learning by doing, Dewey, 2007)原則，提供多種創意思考體驗與練習活動，包括去習慣化技巧(dishabituation skill)體驗、擴散性(divergent thinking)與聚斂性思考(convergent thinking)練習等，引導學生激發公民領域的創造力，而對控制組亦提供優質且流暢的公民科教學。教學完畢後要求全體學生完成設計未來家園的創造力任務，此任務主題之設計提供學生想像空間、避免過度嚴格的思考框架。最終以專家評量進行評定作品的創意得分，評分包括分項文字創意分數、分項圖形創意分數、整體圖文新奇性分數、整體圖文價值性分數，並量測內外在動機。從創意分數較低及較高的作品選取數份。
研究結果如下:（1）經獨立樣本t檢定顯示，接受創造力教學的實驗組其各項創意作品得分顯著高於對照組(p < .001)，表示創造力教學法能有效激發受試者的創造力表現。（2）迴歸分析發現，「組別」與「動機」的交互作用不顯著，顯示動機並非教學法與創造力任務間的調節變項。（3）分析創造力作品的元素，學生自由選用的創作題材具有同質性，但實驗組有些學生展現出跳脫現實框架的成果，未來推動創意思考教學還須強調去除習慣化取材與框架化思考。
The purpose of this research was to design an instructional program to enhance student creativity which could be used in Civic Education course at the junior high school level. The program is to address the concept of “Community Life,” the last unit of fall semester for 7th grade. The componential model of creativity (Amabile, 1996) served as the basis of design framework and the focus was placed toward domain-specific creativity. The effect of this program was examined through expert rating on the post tasks, content analysis of some selected tasks, and students’ motivation. An experiment was conducted with 165 7th grade students, 99 in the experiment group and 66 in the control group. Subjects assigned to the experiment group had 4 classes of teaching for creativity program. This program was designed based on the small progress principle (Amabile & Kramer, 2011) and “learning by doing (Dewey, 2007) offering the concept of creativity, multiple creativity thinking skills and practices, such as dishabituation skill, divergent thinking, and convergent thinking to stimulate creativity in civic education. While control group subjects were also offered high-quality and smooth teaching. All students must finish a post task, which provided space for imagination and low constraint framework. Finally, a panel of experts rated the post tasks and four domain-specific creativity scores were extracted, including verbal creativity score, drawing creativity score, total novelty score, and total value score. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were measured after the completion of the task. The major findings of the research were summarized as the follows. 1.The t-tests show that all four domain-specific creativity scores of the experiment group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The creativity teaching program can effectively enhance creative design performance of in Civic Education task, implying my creativity teaching program is effective in inducing domain-specific creativity. 2.Regarding the result of regression analysis, there was no interaction effect between “group” and “motivation”, showing motivation was not mediating the effect from teaching program to creativity performance. 3.From a content analysis, it is found that the elements students freely chose to construct the post task are of high degree of homogeneity; only limited students of the experiment group can avoid the constraint of habituation (habituated selection of the popular nothing-new elements). Future study could further search and design strategies to help students avoid the trap of habituated thinking or mental set. This study is among limited pioneers in Taiwan to explore and design program to facilitate creative thinking and production in a subdomain (Community Life) of Civic Education course. The study suggests that the program using principles of small progression and learning-by-doing as the foundation could effectively promote the level of product creativity of 7th grade students. The post task, asking students to design, allows exploration and imagination is an adequate task to show students’ creativity. Civic Education course is frequently perceived by junior high students as of low importance in terms of career preparation or social skill training. New program could be designed for Civic Education to promote creative de-composition and re-composition of the traditional concepts about our society, community and interpersonal relations. Teachers could creatively avoid acting as a textbook surface echoer or copier and students could prevent rote memory knowledge of the textbooks. This study is an example to show that thinking creatively and learning to be more creative is possible in the course of Civic Education. A push of teacher momentum and a strategic planning is surely needed.
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