Title: 美國著作權法間接侵害責任之研究
Indirect Infringement Liability under American Copyright Law
Authors: 葉又華
Yeh, Yu-Hua
Wang, Min-Chiuan
Keywords: 著作權;間接侵害責任;代位責任;輔助侵害責任;誘引侵權責任;Copyright;Indirect Infringement;Secondary Liability;Vicarious Liability;Contributory Liability;Inducement Liability
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 隨著科技的發達,人們利用著作物的方式亦日新月異,從過去的實體的錄影帶到現在數位化的電子檔案,從電腦硬碟到個人雲端儲存空間,尤其透過網際網路可以簡便迅速的分享資訊與檔案,帶來生活上的便利,使用者對網路的依賴更是與日俱增。然而,由於這些新興科技設備與服務常成為侵害著作權的工具,但卻難以針對每個直接侵權行為人逐一究責,因此提供這些設備與服務的業者是否須為其使用者的侵權行為負責、負起怎樣的責任、如何認定責任,都是備受關注與討論的著作權議題。 本文主要探討美國法著作權間接侵害責任制度,間接侵害責任意指行為人本身沒有進行侵權行為,卻須為他人的侵權行為負責,其成立之前提為他人的直接侵權行為存在。因此,本文首先簡介著作權直接侵害責任要件,接著介紹著作權間接侵害責任的歷史發展以及其與一般侵權行為法之間的關係,並說明美國著作權法間接侵權責任制度的三大責任類型─代位責任、輔助侵害責任、誘引侵權責任,討論這些責任的定義與性質、認定原則、成立責任所須具備的各個要件和判斷標準,以及整理美國法院對於相關案件具代表性之判決,並分析判決產生後對著作權間接侵害責任原則的影響,提出對著作權間接侵害責任的觀察與省思。
With the advance of technology, the way of using copyrighted works changes rapidly. For example, we used videocassettes in the past, and now we use digital files. In the past, we stored files only in our computer hard drives, and now we can store them in personal digital storage lockers, also known as cyberlockers. It is easy and fast to share information and distribute material though the Internet. The Internet technology makes daily life more convient, and more and more users become Internet dependent. However, a lot of users use those new technology and new types of devices and services as tools to infringe copyright. It is hard to find each direct infringer and sue everyone. Therefore, whether the devices and services providers should be liable for the infringment, what kinds of liability and how to determine the liability raise important issues in copyright. This thesis discusses theories of indirect infringement liability under American copyright law. The meaning of indirect liability is one who never directly commit infringement should be liable for another’s infringment. And the direct infringement by other is a premise. First, this thesis briefly introduces direct copyright infringement liability and the history of indirect copyright liability and the relationship with tort law. Then, this thesis focuses on three types of liability--vicarious liability, contributory liability, and inducement liability--and their definition and elements by elaborating and analyzing the American courts’ representative cases. And, this thesis discusses about the influence of those judgements and attempted to put forth the some observations and reflections about copyright secondary liability.
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